The Fusion Revolution
The Fusion Revolution
Low Energy Nuclear Reaction
is not the slightest indication that nuclear energy will ever be
obtainable. It would mean that the atom would have to be
shattered at will." — Albert Einstein, 1932
When the first human beings figured out how to
make fire at will, life on Earth changed forever.
When LENR reactors hit the marketplace on a large scale, fossil fuels will gradually
obsolete, and human history will be dramatically altered. A total
switchover to Low Energy Nuclear Reaction will take decades, but basic economics tells
us that LENR reactors will win in the marketplace over their more
First commercially installed E-Cat reactor (North Carolina)
NEWS - From Wired Magazine, THE COLD FUSION RACE JUST HEATED UP. In addition to presenting many proven public facts, the article states that the “Russian
media has repeated a rumor that President Obama discussed Chinese E-Cat
production under license with Xi Jinping in his recent visit, a move
that might destroy Russia's vital energy exports.”
Scientists in Russia and the Ukraine have reported to have replicated
"the Rossi effect" in their own laboratories. At least one scientist
in the USA, George Miley (Lenuco LLC), reports success with
nano-particle sized nickel dust and hydrogen gas. Hints and rumors
abound that suggest what is publicly known about independent
replications of the Rossi effect around the world is "just the tip of
the iceberg." NEWS - Airbus Files Patent for LENR ‘Power-Generating Device’.
On October 8th, 2014, an independent test report
of Andrea Rossi’s E-Cat reactor was released by respected scientists
from three different universities. The tests were conducted in
Lugano, Switzerland, at a independent laboratory to avoid any question
of fraud. The tests show conclusively that the E-Cat reactor
produces large amounts of excess heat that cannot be explained by any
known chemical process. Analysis of the fuel before and after the
test showed isotopic changes
that can only be explained by some form of nuclear reaction. See "Observation of abundant heat production from a reactor device and of isotopic changes in the fuel". NEWS - For theoretical explanation, see "On the Nuclear Mechanisms Underlying the Heat Production by the “E-Cat” (Paper written by Norman D. Cook and Andrea Rossi and published on arxiv.org)
The E-Cat fuel is believed to have
contained natural nickel powder, which Andrea Rossi once claimed
was 99.999% pure in his first E-Cat models. Also in the fuel mix are lithium aluminum hydride (LiAlH4), iron powder, and carbon. Some have speculated
that the iron used is in the form of Grain Oriented Electrical Steel
turned into a powder, while others suggest Rossi may be using simple
pure iron powder. No radioactive
used in the
reactor and no radiation was detected emitting from the reactor during
testing. Almost everything in the reactor and fuel is
recyclable. A wild guess fuel formula for qualified university laboratory experimenters might be to try 1 gram of 99.999% pure nickel powder in the 2 to 8 micron size, .1 gram of lithium
aluminum hydride, .1 gram of pure iron powder, and .1 gram of pure
carbon powder. A different educated guess and construction
details by Hank Mills can be found here.
Dr. Alexander Parkhomov, a Russian scientist who claims to
have at least partially duplicated the Rossi effect, stated that the
heating coils must be powered by a “dirty” chopped AC waveform by using a thyristor controlled power supply.
Reporter Alan Smith clarified the remark by saying that “a thyristor
power supply gives an oscilloscope trace similar to an interrupted sine
wave. Even though the base frequency is only 50 or 60 c.p.s, such
a system produces a broad range of harmonics. It is these
multi-frequency harmonics which trigger the reactions.” See article.
The reactor was run in a low
efficiency test mode designed for the most accurate energy input and
heat output measurements, and thus was not run in the normal
useful self-sustain mode which produces a much higher efficiency, which is expressed as coefficient
of performance, or COP. If a reactor has a COP of 3, it means the
reactor outputs 3 times more energy than put into the reactor.
During this test in low efficiency mode the E-Cat produced
between 3.2 and 3.6 times the energy put into the
If the reactor had been set up
its normal high efficiency self-sustain mode, the COP would have
likely been 8 or more, an estimate derived from previous
test results of earlier generation E-Cats. No
official COP number has yet been claimed for the newest generation
E-Cat, but even the earliest, unrefined versions claimed a COP of 6 in
self-sustain mode. Testing in self-sustain mode would be
difficult because energy input would be turned on 25% of the time and
turned off 75% of the time. The scientists wanted an easy test to prove
the basic principle, not determine the highest possible COP, so they
kept the energy input turned on 100% of the time, which naturally
lowered the energy efficiency and COP of the reactor.
----------Quoted from the report----------
reactor operating point was set to about 1260 ºC in the first half of
the run, and at about 1400 °C in the second half. The measured energy
balance between input and output heat yielded a COP factor of about 3.2
and 3.6 for the 1260 ºC and 1400 ºC runs, respectively. The total net
energy obtained during the 32 days run was about 1.5 Mwh.”
sample of the fuel was carefully examined with respect to its isotopic
composition before the run and after the run, using several standard
methods: XPS, EDS, SIMS, ICP-MS and ICP-AES. The isotope composition in
Lithium and Nickel was found to agree with the natural composition
before the run, while after the run it was found to have changed
substantially. Nuclear reactions are therefore indicated to be present
in the run process, which however is hard to reconcile with the fact
that no radioactivity was detected outside the reactor during the run."
Industrial Heat, LLC has installed a one megawatt E-Cat reactor at a customer’s
factory for a 400 day long operational test producing heat for an industrial
process. After analyzing the results of the Lugano test, Rossi changed the fuel composition and control systems. This has allowed
the one megawatt reactor to run for longer periods of time with no
energy input, resulting in a higher COP. Mats Lewan, a usually reliable Swedish reporter, stated that "Since
a COP ranging
from 20 to 80 has been reported, I can confirm that I have got the same
Well known environmentalist Tom Darden
is Chairman of Industrial Heat LLC, and CEO of Cherokee Industrial
Partners. Darden says he does not care about the money, only
in reducing air pollution. Darden stated "I’m
serious — it’s about air pollution and coal . . . Our company is called
Industrial Heat. Our job is to make industrial heat and
industrial heat is made by coal… We don’t think any energy should be
made by coal, so that’s why I’m doing this. This could be a way
to eliminate the use of coal."
3 E-Cats in metal casings
Andrea Rossi's Energy Catalyzer (E-Cat)
LENR reactor is
micrometer sized nickel dust and hydrogen. The nickel powder
is processed to
increase the number of
surface protrusions to provide greater area for heat
producing reactions with hydrogen. LENR may eventually replace
of oil, coal, and natural gas for heat. See E-Cat patent application.
Rossi claims that LENR can
give the world electricity at a cost of just one cent per
kilowatt hour when produced by large scale LENR power plants. Even if we skeptically triple that cost
to 3 cents
per kilowatt hour, it is still an incredible bargain. As LENR is a relatively new and inherently
nontoxic technology, there are few major regulatory
barriers to slow its rapid technological advance. The growth of
LENR technology may thus be as exponential in progression as the use of
personal computers in the 1990s. No precious
metals are used in E-Cat or Defkalion Green Technologies reactors, and any company with the
required to build an air conditioner can produce them in large
numbers on assembly lines. That means even poor, relatively
undeveloped countries will be able to manufacture them. LENR
devices will eventually
be used to power cars, trucks, trains, ships, aircraft, and
spacecraft. Imagine a luxury sedan you could drive for many
miles without refueling, or a small aircraft you
could fly from New York to Beijing nonstop at low cost.
Solar Hydrogen Trends
US government can leverage this technology to pull itself from under
this burdensome debt of 20 trillion dollars in a very short period of
time." — Jack Aganyan and Konstantin Balakiryan
BIG NEWS! See Solar Hydrogen Trend's patent application and a related Internet news article.
Solar Hydrogen Trends claims
to have developed a 250 pound footlocker sized LENR reactor
that can be used to transmute water, including the oxygen content
water, into 96.7% pure hydrogen gas. They claim that the
cost of producing a quantity of hydrogen gas with the energy content of
one gallon of gasoline would be about nine cents. The cost
of producing electricity through burning this low cost
hydrogen gas would be about .3 cents per kilowatt hour. They state that "The
technology provides a multifactorial hydrogen reactor with elevated
hydrogen production due to a set of sixteen (16) physical and chemical
processes, acting simultaneously on the hydrogen bonds. The
hydrogen reactor uses water as main fuel and its emissions are 100%
clean (clean air)."
Solar Hydrogen Trends first used AirKinetics, Inc. for testing, and they posted a signed test data page on their website. In July, 2014, Solar Hydrogen Trends revealed even more positive test results, the latest conducted by TRC Solutions. See the TRC test report pdf. Solar
states that their discovery was purely accidental, and a
result of experiments in how to extract precious metals from
nature at higher rates of efficiency. They state that this
up to replace fission nuclear power
plants, and scaled down to power automobiles, trucks, trains, ships,
and jet aircraft. It would be an easy engineering task to design
a 747 jetliner that runs on hydrogen gas as the water fuel contains
more energy per pound than jet fuel. A hydrogen reactor
large enough to power a typical mid sized automobile would be about the
size of a carton of cigarettes. Should Saudi Arabia be worried?
Solar Hydrogen Trend's top scientist, Professor Konstantin Balakiryan, states
that by passing just one barrel of ordinary water through their
"Symphony7A" hydrogen reactor they can produce hydrogen fuel with the energy equivalent of burning
three barrels of oil. NEWS!
Solar Hydrogen Trends reports yet another positive test of their
reactor was conducted on March 10th, 2015, this time by Horizon Air Measurement Services, Inc. See press release and test results.
Solar Hydrogen Trends believes that one of the 16 processes
they use in their reactor works like the Pistol Shrimp. See a YouTube video of a Pistol Shrimp creating a 4000 degree Celsius underwater weapon.
Jack Aganyan -
Konstantin Balakiryan, PhD - top
Kirill Gichunts - business mamager
- From my point of view, Solar Hydrogen Trends is an intriguing WILD CARD company that we should follow with a combination of caution and hope. Professor Konstantin Balakiryan, PhD, their top scientist, was the head of
the physics, chemistry, and mathematics department at the Russian
University of Friendship in Moscow. "His
primary research included study of fast processes in liquids and
acoustical resonance; physical phenomena associated with acoustic waves
in water solutions from infrasound to hypersound, and the use of
acoustics as a tool to investigate other significant phenomena." He has also has received medical patents, including techniques for enabling rapid healing of displasia. Konstantin Balakiryan speaks
Armenian, which is his native language, and is fluent in Russian
and Georgian. He can also carry on a reasonable conversation in
English, Spanish, Ukrainian,
Bulgarian, and Polish. The entire Solar Hydrogen Trends staff has excellent credentials,
so those who would dismiss their claims as impossible might want to
wait a little to see how this news plays out. Would such smart,
well educated people really try to commit a fraud that could only end
in their disgrace? At his advanced age, Konstantin certainly
his excellent reputation more than money. I have never tested
their device and do not know for sure that it works as advertised, but
I certainly do not dismiss their technology out of hand, which now has third party
verification from at least three respected testing laboratories.
their story believable to me is the fact they state this
difficult to explain phenomena was discovered by accident. In my opinion,
no one in their right mind would consider wasting time trying to
achieve the cold fission of oxygen atoms into multiple hydrogen atoms.
The fact that it sounds so preposterous makes it more believable
to me. They say that it is a "gift from nature",
and they do not brag that
they created this
super-technology through planned effort. Once they discovered
that their precious metals purification device produced copious amounts
hydrogen gas, they switched from looking for gold to producing low cost
hydrogen gas. If their product does work, then the energy crisis
is over because their
device has an incredibly high COP, measured at 900 to over 1,400 during three separate tests.
This technology would be more
easily usable for all applications than any energy source in history,
and would have massive potential for producing chemicals as well.
century technology could transform the energy
marketplace overnight if it is 100% proven and
accepted as fact by market traders. The trading market price
we pay for oil, coal, and natural gas is based on expectations for
future demand and a finite supply. If market traders
understand that there will be no future demand for using fossil fuels
as an energy source, then what will happen to the price of oil, coal,
and natural gas?
If this technology is real and not some horrendous gas
measuring error, then the best automotive application might be
through use of an internal combustion engine, such as the new EcoMotors International opposed-piston
opposed-cylinder (OPOC) engine. This might be less expensive than
using a fuel cell, as the EcoMotors engine is highly compact and uses
50% fewer parts than a typical automobile engine. 96.7% pure hydrogen
gas can easily be burned in an internal combustion engine, but might not work well in a fuel cell unless the fuel cell is custom
designed to handle impurities. The EcoMotors engine has low
construction costs and is highly efficient, and as a bonus it produces
lots of torque. The EcoMotors engine is currently being manufactured to run on
diesel fuel, but the company states that it can easily be altered to run on
natural gas, and thus presumably on hydrogen gas as well. Building an
automobile with this combination of technologies would be a dream come
true for automobile enthusiasts, but is it real? We should know the
answer to that question fairly soon.
Is this our future?
Brillouin Energy Corporation
has functioning LENR technology similar to Rossi and Defkalion.
One device they have in development is a simple hot
water heater that uses ordinary water (which releases hydrogen) and
nickel as fuel. This device has a low COP but is inexpensive to build and could safely be
used in homes to replace standard home water heaters. Brillouin also has a more complex nickel
hydrogen gas device in development with a potentially higher COP. Brillouin has signed a licensing contract with a South
Korean company that wishes to use their clean energy technology. Brillouin has an interesting YouTube animation video
showing what they believe is the underlying mechanism of their LENR
device, which they call a "Control Electron Capture Reaction." See their patent application, Control of Low Energy Nuclear Reaction in Hydrides, and Autonomously Controlled Heat Generation Module.
Global Energy Corporation (GEC) has plans for a hybrid cold fusion-fission reactor, the GeNiE Hybrid Fusion Reactor. "The GeNiE Reactor takes advantage of the efficiently produced
high-energy neutrons in a proprietary hybrid fusion, fast-fission
reactor design to produce power from un-enriched uranium. The GeNiE
Reactor is not prone to melt down since it doesn't rely on a
chain-reaction to produce high-energy neutrons. The GeNiE Reactor will
extract more energy from the fuel than conventional nuclear reactors.
The GeNiE Reactor is lower cost since it doesn't required enriched
uranium and it doesn't produce hazardous nuclear waste that is costly
to handle. By fissioning existing hazardous waste, the GeNiE Reactor
can generate power and mitigate existing hazardous waste at the same
time." This reactor design was partially based on breakthrough
research conducted by the United States Navy research center, SPAWAR. More details here. You can see an intriguing short YouTube video on the history of the U.S. Navy's SPAWAR's LENR research here.
STMicroelectronics S.R.L. of Switzerland, one of the world’s largest semiconductor companies, has filed a LENR patent application.
Toyota scientists have replicated Mitsubishi's cold fusion and element transmutation experiments.
NASA on LENR
cheap, abundant, clean, scalable, portable source of energy will impact
EVERYONE." - "Singular solution to peak oil, climate change, fresh
water, and associated geopolitical instabilities." - "Transmutation
products [of LENR are] most consistent with neutron absorption process."— Dr. Joseph M. Zawodny, NASA Langley Research Center
"The temperature you can get out of [LENR] is interesting.” - “We’ve had to be careful [in our
research in] terms of the energetics. I don’t think there is a
power [limitation] problem." — NASA scientist Dennis Bushnell
NASA concept for LENR space plane that flies from airport to orbit and back
using only one main rocket engine.
It starts with a dream! LENR Cars is
a very small Swiss startup company that hopes to change the world. How
long will it take to create the first affordable LENR powered
Here is a partial list of companies and organizations that have reported positive LENR test
results. There are many other organizations,
companies, scientific teams, and individual scientists who have
also reported positive test results. No doubt there is also much research that is going on in secret.
In an informative YouTube video,
former MIT professor and scientist, the late Dr. Eugene Mallove,
detailed the history of the cold fusion cover-up by MIT scientists with
financial interests in hot
fusion research, and by the United States Patent Office.
NEWS! Graphical 3D Modeling and Analysis of Molecules and Nanostructures with the BSM-SG Atomic Models — Does this explain LENR? Another theory is Widom Larsen, which is explained on an interesting YouTube program (from 2011) and through a slide show (published in 2014). Which of the dozens of theories being proposed will win out in the end?
Simplified hot fusion without expensive lasers
High beta fusion reactor - See the news story and exciting Lockheed Martin video describing a radically new compact hot
fusion reactor design comparable in size to a commercial
jet engine. The plasma pressure/magnetic pressure reactor is about
2x2x4 meters in size. Lockheed Martin hopes to meet global baseload
electricity demand by the year 2050.
Boron-hydrogen fusion - Tri Alpha Energy
uses a simplified form of high temperature fusion that uses boron and hydrogen as fuel. The fusion products are broken up into three
helium-4 nuclei and three alpha particles, a process that produces
little or no radioactive waste. Tri Alpha's reactor can
create electricity directly with no turbine required, increasing
efficiency while reducing size and construction costs. Tri Alpha's
concept is so appealing that famed Microsoft co-founder, Paul Allen,
has invested millions of dollars into the highly secretive Rancho Santa
Margarita based company. Tri Alpha has received additional new funding from the government of Russian on top of private U.S. investors.
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Please see my main website with overview of all major energy sources, The Renewable Energy Disaster, and the dramatic 15 minute YouTube video, The Global Biofuel Disaster.
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