The Fusion Revolution

Lockheed Martin's simplified hot fusion reactor
Lockheed Martin fusion reator
Lockheed Martin has a website and video describing their radically new compact high beta hot fusion reactor.  The reactor is only about 2x2x4 meters in size.  Lockheed Martin hopes to meet global baseload electricity demand by the year 2050. 

Boron-hydrogen fusion 

Tri Alpha

Tri Alpha Energy uses a simplified form of high temperature fusion that uses boron and hydrogen as fuel.  The fusion products are broken up into three helium-4 nuclei and three alpha particles, a process that produces little or no radioactive waste.  Tri Alpha's reactor can theoretically create electricity directly with no turbine required, increasing efficiency while reducing size and construction costs.  Tri Alpha's concept is so appealing that famed Microsoft co-founder, Paul Allen, has invested millions of dollars in this Rancho Santa Margarita based company.

Low Energy Nuclear Reaction (LENR)
Brillouin Energy Corporation has multiple devices based on LENR technology under development.  Brillouin's nickel powder and hydrogen gas based LENR reactor is claimed to be able to produce between 4 and 6 times the energy put into the reactor.  Brillouin has released an interesting new video explaining their technology.  See their patent application, Control of Low Energy Nuclear Reaction in Hydrides, and Autonomously Controlled Heat Generation Module.

NEWS!  Brillouin hosts information session on Capitol Hill - Members of Congress show interest in LENR


     "Brillouin Energy’s technology is based on Low Energy Nuclear Reactions (“LENR”), which it generates in its uniquely designed reactor core unit that converts ordinary hydrogen into helium through a sequence of continuous and controlled nuclear reactions. The mass of helium is slightly less than the mass of the four hydrogen nuclei that are consumed; that mass difference is converted into a relatively large amount of thermal energy in accordance with Einstein’s famous formula: E = mc2".

Unified Gravity Corporation claims to be working on a hydrogen-lithium fusion reactor (see patent application).  They state that "We began in 2001 with Hubert and Stephen Lipinski’s theoretical research on kinetic energy storage and how this storage effects gravity.  Their paper Gravity Theory Based on Mass-Energy Equivalence was published in 2008."  Unified Gravity is currently developing various methods of transferring the energy from alpha particles into direct electric currents.  They claim that they were "able to reproduce positive results in labs at the University of Louisiana, Lafayette and the University of North Texas with further experiments at our Morgan Hill laboratory."

Unified Gravity's compact fusion reactor
Unified Gravity fusion reactor


     "A cheap, abundant, clean, scalable, portable source of energy will impact EVERYONE." - "Singular solution to peak oil, climate change, fresh water, and associated geopolitical instabilities." - "Transmutation products [of LENR are] most consistent with neutron absorption process."— Dr. Joseph M. Zawodny, NASA Langley Research Center

     "The temperature you can get out of [LENR] is interesting.” - “We’ve had to be careful [in our research in] terms of the energetics.  I don’t think there is a power [limitation] problem." — NASA scientist Dennis Bushnell

See NASA pdf files on LENR - Zawodny  Bushnnell  Nelson and NASA-Zawodny LENR patent 

NASA concept LENR space planeNASA LENR rocket conceptspace plane 2

NASA concept for LENR space plane that flies from airport to orbit and back using only one main rocket engine.

The hot as fire E-Cat controversy

one megawatt reactor
Old style one megawatt E-Cat reactor

     Andrea Rossi was granted a US patent for the E-Cat on August 25, 2015.  On August 27th, 2015, Rossi filed an international patent application that reveals further details.  The E-Cat fuel contains carbonyl nickel powder, pure lithium powder, and lithium aluminum hydride (LiAlH4).  Other speculated ingredients include iron or steel dust, carbon powder, tungsten, and now titanium.  You can find fuel preparation ideas for the original old style E-Cat herehere, and here.  The LENR reaction is claimed to start when the fuel mixture is heated inside the sealed reactor core and stimulated by a varying electromagnetic field, which is induced by modulating the electric current being fed into the heating coils.  No radioactive materials are used in the reactor.  Rossi claims that borderline radiation between X-rays and gamma-rays around 50 keV is produced inside the reactor.  Andrea Rossi states that he is working on a new E-Cat QuarkX design, which operates with a surface temperature of more than 1,500 degrees Celsius (2,732 degrees Fahrenheit).  The QuarkX is claimed to be made up of tiny 20 watt modules just 1 mm in diameter.  Rossi says they emit an intense blue light, heat, and electricity.

WAR OF WORDS - Is it all a scam?  Industrial Heat, LLC and Leonardo Corporation installed an old style one megawatt (heat) E-Cat reactor in Miami, Florida, for a 350 day long operational test.  The test ended on February 17th, 2016.  A purportedly independent third party scientist, Dr. Ing. Fabio Penon, was hired by Industrial Heat and Andrea Rossi to oversee the test measurements and write a report.  Rossi has filed a lawsuit against Industrial Heat for patent violation and breach of contract for refusing to pay funds after the test's completion.  Industrial Heat has rejected Rossi's claims and alleges fraud.  See Industrial Heat's claims against Rossi.  Who do you believe?  Is the E-Cat a hoax or a miracle of 21st century science?  Does Andrea Rossi deserve to go to jail, or does he deserve a Nobel Prize?  This author is agnostic until more information is made public. 

You can keep up with the dramatic, soap opera like E-Cat controversy through

Toyota replicates Mitsubishi's cold fusion and element transmutation experimentsLatest 2016 Mitsubishi LENR patent.

Here is a partial list of companies and organizations that have reported positive LENR test results.  There are many other organizations, companies, scientific teams, and individual scientists who have also reported positive test results.  
No doubt there is also much research that is going on in secret.

Molten salt fission nuclear reactors - the backup plan 

     If simplified hot fusion technology and Low Energy Nuclear Reaction does not work as hoped, the world has alternative number three in the form of molten salt fission nuclear reactors.  While less desirable than LENR and simplified hot fusion technology, we know that molten salt reactors work because they have already been built and tested during the 1950s through 1970s.  Molten salt reactors are inherently safer and simpler than light water nuclear reactors, and they are cheaper to build and maintain.  Molten salt reactors can run on uranium or on plutonium fuel salvaged from old nuclear warheads.  They can also be used to breed new uranium-233 fuel from the Earth's inexhaustible supply of low cost thorium.  A Canadian company called Terrestrial Energy has a plan to start producing simple molten salt uranium based reactors and gradually transition over time to more advanced thorium molten salt reactors.  Molten salt thorium reactors produce very little long term nuclear waste and are meltdown proof because the fuel is designed to be melted down right from the very beginning.  A new British company, Moltex, has similar plans.  News!  See thorium reactor YouTube movie.

     All of the nuclear technologies described on this website have the potential to produce low cost reliable energy twenty-four hours a day, three hundred and sixty-five days a year.  Reliability, high energy density, and low cost are essential qualities for any authentic replacement for fossil fuels, and they are qualities that biofuels, windmills, and solar schemes can never give us.  Please see my main website with overview of all major energy sources, The Renewable Energy Disaster, and watch the YouTube videos, The Global Biofuel Disaster and Windmills Kill Birds.

Christopher Calder      email = archive.sonoma AT gmail DOT com

Christopher Calder is a nonprofit, nonpartisan advocate for world food supply security with no financial interest in any energy related business.