The Fusion Revolution
Low Energy Nuclear Reaction


"There is not the slightest indication that nuclear energy will ever be obtainable.  It would mean that the atom would have to be shattered at will." — Albert Einstein, 1932



     When the first human beings figured out how to make fire at will, life on Earth changed forever.  When LENR reactors hit the marketplace on a large scale, fossil fuels will gradually become obsolete, and human history will be dramatically altered.  A total switchover to Low Energy Nuclear Reaction will take decades, but basic economics tells us that LENR reactors will win in the marketplace over their more costly competitors.

The E-Cat

one megawatt reactor
First commercially installed E-Cat reactor 


     On October 8th, 2014, an independent test report of Andrea Rossi’s E-Cat reactor was released by respected scientists from three different universities.  The tests were conducted in Lugano, Switzerland, at a independent laboratory to avoid any question of fraud.  The tests show conclusively that the E-Cat reactor produces large amounts of excess heat that cannot be explained by any known chemical process.  Analysis of the fuel before and after the test showed 
isotopic changes that can only be explained by some form of nuclear reaction.  See "Observation of abundant heat production from a reactor device and of isotopic changes in the fuel".  NEWS - For theoretical explanation, see "On the Nuclear Mechanisms Underlying the Heat Production by the “E-Cat (Paper written by Norman D. Cook and Andrea Rossi and published on arxiv.org)

     The E-Cat fuel is believed to have contained natural nickel powder, which Andrea Rossi once claimed was 99.999% pure in his first E-Cat models.  Also in the fuel
mix are lithium aluminum hydride (LiAlH4), iron powder, and carbon.  Some have speculated that the iron used is in the form of Grain Oriented Electrical Steel turned into a powder, while others suggest Rossi may be using simple pure iron powder.  No radioactive materials are used in the reactor and no radiation was detected emitting from the reactor during testing.  Almost everything in the reactor and fuel is recyclable.  wild guess fuel formula for qualified university laboratory experimenters might be to try 1 gram of 99.999% pure nickel powder in the 2 to 8 micron size, .1 gram of  lithium aluminum hydride, .1 gram of pure iron powder, and .1 gram of pure carbon powder.  A different educated guess and construction details by Hank Mills can be found here.  

     Dr. Alexander Parkhomov, a Russian scientist who claims to have at least partially duplicated the Rossi effect, stated that the heating coils must be powered by a “dirty” chopped AC waveform by using a thyristor controlled power supply.  Reporter Alan Smith clarified the remark by saying that a thyristor power supply gives an oscilloscope trace similar to an interrupted sine wave.  Even though the base frequency is only 50 or 60 c.p.s, such a system produces a broad range of harmonics.  It is these multi-frequency harmonics which trigger the reactions.”  See article.

     The reactor was run in a low efficiency test mode designed for the most accurate energy input and heat output measurements, and thus was not run in the normal commercially useful self-sustain mode which produces a much higher efficiency, which is expressed as coefficient of performance, or COP.  If a reactor has a COP of 3, it means the reactor outputs 3 times more energy than put into the reactor.  During this test in low efficiency mode the E-Cat produced between 3.2 and 3.6 times the energy put into the reactor.

     If the reactor had been set up in its normal high efficiency self-sustain mode, the COP would have likely been 8 or more, an estimate derived from previous test results of earlier generation E-Cats.  No official COP number has yet been claimed for the newest generation E-Cat, but even the earliest, unrefined versions claimed a COP of 6 in self-sustain mode.  Testing in self-sustain mode would be difficult because energy input would be turned on 25% of the time and turned off 75% of the time. The scientists wanted an easy test to prove the basic principle, not determine the highest possible COP, so they kept the energy input turned on 100% of the time, which naturally lowered the energy efficiency and COP of the reactor.

----------Quoted from the report----------

     "The reactor operating point was set to about 1260 C in the first half of the run, and at about 1400 C in the second half.  The measured energy balance between input and output heat yielded a COP factor of about 3.2 and 3.6 for the 1260 C and 1400 C runs, respectively.  The total net energy obtained during the 32 days run was about 1.5 Mwh.”

     "A sample of the fuel was carefully examined with respect to its isotopic composition before the run and after the run, using several standard methods: XPS, EDS, SIMS, ICP-MS and ICP-AES.  The isotope composition in Lithium and Nickel was found to agree with the natural composition before the run, while after the run it was found to have changed substantially.  Nuclear reactions are therefore indicated to be present in the run process, which however is hard to reconcile with the fact that no radioactivity was detected outside the reactor during the run."


     Industrial Heat, LLC has installed a one megawatt E-Cat reactor at a customer’s factory for a 400 day long operational test producing heat for an industrial process.  
After analyzing the results of the Lugano test, Rossi changed the fuel composition and control systems.  This has allowed the one megawatt reactor to run for longer periods of time with no energy input, resulting in a higher COP.  Mats Lewan, a usually reliable Swedish reporter, stated that "Since a COP ranging from 20 to 80 has been reported, I can confirm that I have got the same information."

     Well known environmentalist Tom Darden is Chairman of Industrial Heat LLC, and CEO of Cherokee Industrial Partners.  Darden says he does not care about the money, only in reducing air pollution.  Darden stated "I’m serious — it’s about air pollution and coal . . . Our company is called Industrial Heat.  Our job is to make industrial heat and industrial heat is made by coal… We don’t think any energy should be made by coal, so that’s why I’m doing this.  This could be a way to eliminate the use of coal."

E-Cats
                                      E-Cat reactor cell                          3 E-Cats in metal casings                                  One E-Cat reactor cell 
 
     Andrea Rossi's Energy Catalyzer (E-Cat) LENR reactor is fueled by micrometer sized nickel dust and hydrogen.  The nickel powder is processed to increase the number of surface protrusions to provide greater area for heat producing reactions with hydrogen.  
LENR may eventually replace the burning of oil, coal, and natural gas for heat.  See E-Cat patent application.     

     Rossi claims that LENR can give the world electricity at a cost of just one cent per kilowatt hour when produced by large scale LENR power plants.  Even if we skeptically triple that cost to 3 cents per kilowatt hour, it is still an incredible bargain. 
As LENR is a relatively new and inherently nontoxic technology, there are few major regulatory barriers to slow its rapid technological advance.  The growth of LENR technology may thus be as exponential in progression as the use of personal computers in the 1990s.  No precious metals are used in the E-Cat, and any company with the technological skills required to build an air conditioner can produce them in large numbers on assembly lines.  That means even poor, relatively undeveloped countries will be able to manufacture them.  LENR devices will eventually be used to power cars, trucks, trains, ships, aircraft, and spacecraft.  Imagine a luxury sedan you could drive for many thousands of miles without refueling, or a small aircraft you could fly from New York to Beijing nonstop at low cost. 

You can keep up with fast moving E-Cat events through http://www.e-catworld.com/

Other LENR pioneers
 
Brillouin Energy Corporation has functioning LENR technology similar to Rossi and Defkalion.  One device they have in development is a simple hot water heater that uses ordinary water (which releases hydrogen) and nickel as fuel.  This device has a low COP but is inexpensive to build and could safely be used in homes to replace standard home water heaters.  Brillouin also has a more complex nickel powder and hydrogen gas device in development with a potentially higher COP.  Brillouin has signed a licensing contract with a South Korean company that wishes to use their clean energy technology.  Brillouin has an interesting YouTube animation video showing what they believe is the underlying mechanism of their LENR device, which they call a "Control Electron Capture Reaction." See their patent application, Control of Low Energy Nuclear Reaction in Hydrides, and Autonomously Controlled Heat Generation Module.

Global Energy Corporation (GEC)
has plans for a hybrid cold fusion-fission reactor, the GeNiE Hybrid Fusion Reactor.  "The GeNiE Reactor takes advantage of the efficiently produced high-energy neutrons in a proprietary hybrid fusion, fast-fission reactor design to produce power from un-enriched uranium.  The GeNiE Reactor is not prone to melt down since it doesn't rely on a chain-reaction to produce high-energy neutrons. The GeNiE Reactor will extract more energy from the fuel than conventional nuclear reactors.  The GeNiE Reactor is lower cost since it doesn't required enriched uranium and it doesn't produce hazardous nuclear waste that is costly to handle. By fissioning existing hazardous waste, the GeNiE Reactor can generate power and mitigate existing hazardous waste at the same time."  This reactor design was partially based on breakthrough research conducted by the United States Navy research center, SPAWAR.  More details here.  You can see an intriguing short YouTube video on the history of the U.S. Navy's SPAWAR's LENR research here.

STMicroelectronics S.R.L. of Switzerland, one of the world’s largest semiconductor companies, has filed a LENR patent application. 

Toyota scientists have replicated Mitsubishi's cold fusion and element transmutation experiments.

Unified Gravity Corporation claims to be working on a Hydrogen Lithium Fusion Device.  They state that "the largest high-energy particle peak count rates achieved with the alpha particle detection system have exceeded 500,000 CPS with energies around 5 MeV after penetrating a 25 micron thick grounded aluminized mylar shield directly in front of a stainless steel disk with a 1 micron diameter aperture positioned at a distance of 4 cm from the proton-lithium plasma."

Here is a partial list of companies and organizations that have reported positive LENR test results.  There are many other organizations, companies, scientific teams, and individual scientists who have also reported positive test results.  
No doubt there is also much research that is going on in secret.
  
NASA on LENR

     "A cheap, abundant, clean, scalable, portable source of energy will impact EVERYONE." - "Singular solution to peak oil, climate change, fresh water, and associated geopolitical instabilities." - "Transmutation products [of LENR are] most consistent with neutron absorption process."— Dr. Joseph M. Zawodny, NASA Langley Research Center

     "The temperature you can get out of [LENR] is interesting.” - “We’ve had to be careful [in our research in] terms of the energetics.  I don’t think there is a power [limitation] problem." — NASA scientist Dennis Bushnell

See NASA pdf files on LENR - Zawodny  Bushnnell  Nelson and NASA-Zawodny LENR patent 

NASA concept LENR space planeNASA LENR rocket conceptspace plane 2

NASA concept for LENR space plane that flies from airport to orbit and back using only one main rocket engine.

Simplified hot fusion without expensive lasers

High beta fusion reactor - See the news story and exciting Lockheed Martin video describing a radically new compact hot fusion reactor design comparable in size to a commercial jet engine.  The plasma pressure/magnetic pressure reactor is about 2x2x4 meters in size.  Lockheed Martin hopes to meet global baseload electricity demand by the year 2050. 

Boron-hydrogen fusion - Tri Alpha Energy uses a simplified form of high temperature fusion that uses boron and hydrogen as fuel.  The fusion products are broken up into three helium-4 nuclei and three alpha particles, a process that produces little or no radioactive waste.  Tri Alpha's reactor can theoretically create electricity directly with no turbine required, increasing efficiency while reducing size and construction costs.  Tri Alpha's concept is so appealing that famed Microsoft co-founder, Paul Allen, has invested millions of dollars into the highly secretive Rancho Santa Margarita based company.  Tri Alpha has received additional new funding from the government of Russian on top of private U.S. investors.

Please see my main website with overview of all major energy sources, The Renewable Energy Disaster, and watch the dramatic 15 minute YouTube video, The Global Biofuel Disaster.

Christopher Calder
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