The Fusion Revolution
Low Energy Nuclear Reaction

"There is not the slightest indication that nuclear energy will ever be obtainable.  It would mean that the atom would have to be shattered at will." — Albert Einstein, 1932

     When the first human beings figured out how to make fire at will, life on Earth changed forever.  When LENR reactors hit the marketplace on a large scale, fossil fuels will gradually become obsolete, and human history will be dramatically altered.  A total switchover to Low Energy Nuclear Reaction will take decades, but basic economics tells us that LENR reactors will win in the marketplace over their more costly competitors.

The E-Cat

one megawatt reactor
Old style one megawatt E-Cat reactor - The latest version uses only four 250 kilowatt E-Cat reactor cells.

NEWS!  Andrea Rossi was granted a US patent for the E-Cat on August 25, 2015.  On August 27th, 2015, Rossi filed an international patent application that reveals further details.

     On October 8th, 2014, an independent test report of Andrea Rossi’s E-Cat reactor was released by respected scientists from three different universities.  The tests were conducted in Lugano, Switzerland, at a independent laboratory to avoid any question of fraud.  The tests show conclusively that the E-Cat reactor produces large amounts of excess heat that cannot be explained by any known chemical process.  Analysis of the fuel before and after the test showed 
isotopic changes that can only be explained by some form of nuclear reaction.  See "Observation of abundant heat production from a reactor device and of isotopic changes in the fuel".  

     Rossi stated in an interview that “My theory is that a proton from a hydrogen atom enters, by the quantum tunneling effect, into a nucleus of Li-7 (i.e., a lithium nucleus of atomic weight 7), forming a nucleus of Be-8 (i.e., a beryllium nucleus of atomic weight 8), which then decays in a few seconds into two alpha particles (helium nuclei), accompanied with the release of significant nuclear energy. ” See "On the Nuclear Mechanisms Underlying the Heat Production by the “E-Cat.

NEWS - Yet another theory of how LENR works has been presented by two top Swedish scientists.  "Nuclear Spallation and Neutron Capture Induced by Ponderomotive Wave Forcing", by Rickard Lundin and Hans Lidgren,
can be downloaded here (PDF).  The two scientists claim that LENR can be explained within the standard model of physics.

----------Quoted from the report----------

     "The reactor operating point was set to about 1260 C in the first half of the run, and at about 1400 C in the second half.  The measured energy balance between input and output heat yielded a COP factor of about 3.2 and 3.6 for the 1260 C and 1400 C runs, respectively.  The total net energy obtained during the 32 days run was about 1.5 Mwh.”

     "A sample of the fuel was carefully examined with respect to its isotopic composition before the run and after the run, using several standard methods: XPS, EDS, SIMS, ICP-MS and ICP-AES.  The isotope composition in Lithium and Nickel was found to agree with the natural composition before the run, while after the run it was found to have changed substantially.  Nuclear reactions are therefore indicated to be present in the run process, which however is hard to reconcile with the fact that no radioactivity was detected outside the reactor during the run."

     The E-Cat fuel contains carbonyl nickel powder, which Andrea Rossi once stated was 99.999% pure.  The micron sized nickel grains must be prepared in advance by preheating them to a minimum temperature of 200 degrees Celsius, which converts trapped water into supercritical steam.  The exploding steam increases the porosity of the nickel.  Also in the fuel
mixture are pure lithium powder and lithium aluminum hydride (LiAlH4).  Other possible ingredients, such as small amounts of carbon and steel dust, are suspected, but not proven.  The LENR reaction starts when the fuel mixture is heated inside the sealed reactor core and stimulated by a varying electromagnetic field, which is induced by modulating the electric current being fed into the heating coils.  No radioactive materials are used in the reactor and no radiation was detected emitting from the reactor during testing.  Almost everything in the reactor and fuel is recyclable.  

The fuel mixture
- “Variations in the ratio of reactants and catalyst tend to govern reaction rate, and are not critical.  However, it has been found that a suitable mixture would include a starting mixture of 50% nickel, 20% lithium, and 30% LAH [lithium aluminum hydride].  Within this mixture, nickel acts as a catalyst for the reaction, and is not itself a reagent.  While nickel is particularly useful because of its relative abundance, its function can also be carried out by other elements in column 10 of the periodic table, such as platinum or palladium.” — Rossi Patent

Industrial Heat, LLC has installed a one megawatt E-Cat reactor at a customer’s factory for a 400 day long operational test producing heat for an industrial process.  
After analyzing the results of the Lugano test, Rossi changed the fuel composition and control systems.  This has allowed the one megawatt reactor to run for longer periods of time with no energy input, resulting in a higher COP.  Mats Lewan, a usually reliable Swedish reporter, stated that "Since a COP ranging from 20 to 80 has been reported, I can confirm that I have got the same information."

     Rossi claims that LENR can give the world electricity at a cost of just one cent per kilowatt hour when produced by large scale LENR power plants.  Even if we skeptically triple that cost to 3 cents per kilowatt hour, it is still an incredible bargain. 
As LENR is a relatively new and inherently nontoxic technology, there are few major regulatory barriers to slow its rapid technological advance.  The growth of LENR technology may thus be as exponential in progression as the use of personal computers in the 1990s.  No precious metals are used in the E-Cat, and any company with the technological skills required to build an air conditioner can produce them in large numbers on assembly lines.  That means even poor, relatively undeveloped countries will be able to manufacture them.  LENR devices will eventually be used to power cars, trucks, trains, ships, aircraft, and spacecraft.  Imagine a luxury sedan you could drive for many thousands of miles without refueling, or a small aircraft you could fly from New York to Beijing nonstop at low cost. 

NEWS!  Yet another group of Russian researchers claim to have duplicated Rossi's E-Cat technology.  They say the secret is to preload the nickel powder with hydrogen.  See story with technical details.   See article about earlier Russian replication claim.  See Chinese replication claim here.

You can keep up with fast moving E-Cat events through

Other LENR pioneers
Brillouin Energy Corporation has functioning LENR technology similar to Rossi and Defkalion.  One device they have in development is a simple hot water heater that uses ordinary water (which releases hydrogen) and nickel as fuel.  This device has a low COP but is inexpensive to build and could safely be used in homes to replace standard home water heaters.  Brillouin also has a more complex nickel powder and hydrogen gas device in development with a potentially higher COP.  Brillouin has signed a licensing contract with a South Korean company that wishes to use their clean energy technology.  Brillouin has an interesting YouTube animation video showing what they believe is the underlying mechanism of their LENR device, which they call a "Control Electron Capture Reaction." See their patent application, Control of Low Energy Nuclear Reaction in Hydrides, and Autonomously Controlled Heat Generation Module.

NEWS!  Brillouin hosts information session on Capitol Hill - Members of Congress show interest in LENR

Global Energy Corporation (GEC)
has plans for a hybrid cold fusion-fission reactor, the GeNiE Hybrid Fusion Reactor.  "The GeNiE Reactor takes advantage of the efficiently produced high-energy neutrons in a proprietary hybrid fusion, fast-fission reactor design to produce power from un-enriched uranium.  The GeNiE Reactor is not prone to melt down since it doesn't rely on a chain-reaction to produce high-energy neutrons. The GeNiE Reactor will extract more energy from the fuel than conventional nuclear reactors.  The GeNiE Reactor is lower cost since it doesn't required enriched uranium and it doesn't produce hazardous nuclear waste that is costly to handle. By fissioning existing hazardous waste, the GeNiE Reactor can generate power and mitigate existing hazardous waste at the same time."  This reactor design was partially based on breakthrough research conducted by the United States Navy research center, SPAWAR.  More details here.  You can see an intriguing short YouTube video on the history of the U.S. Navy's SPAWAR's LENR research here.

STMicroelectronics S.R.L. of Switzerland, one of the world’s largest semiconductor companies, has filed a LENR patent application. 

Toyota scientists have replicated Mitsubishi's cold fusion and element transmutation experiments.

Unified Gravity Corporation claims to be working on a Hydrogen Lithium Fusion Device.  They state that "the largest high-energy particle peak count rates achieved with the alpha particle detection system have exceeded 500,000 CPS with energies around 5 MeV after penetrating a 25 micron thick grounded aluminized mylar shield directly in front of a stainless steel disk with a 1 micron diameter aperture positioned at a distance of 4 cm from the proton-lithium plasma."

Here is a partial list of companies and organizations that have reported positive LENR test results.  There are many other organizations, companies, scientific teams, and individual scientists who have also reported positive test results.  
No doubt there is also much research that is going on in secret.

     "A cheap, abundant, clean, scalable, portable source of energy will impact EVERYONE." - "Singular solution to peak oil, climate change, fresh water, and associated geopolitical instabilities." - "Transmutation products [of LENR are] most consistent with neutron absorption process."— Dr. Joseph M. Zawodny, NASA Langley Research Center

     "The temperature you can get out of [LENR] is interesting.” - “We’ve had to be careful [in our research in] terms of the energetics.  I don’t think there is a power [limitation] problem." — NASA scientist Dennis Bushnell

See NASA pdf files on LENR - Zawodny  Bushnnell  Nelson and NASA-Zawodny LENR patent 

NASA concept LENR space planeNASA LENR rocket conceptspace plane 2

NASA concept for LENR space plane that flies from airport to orbit and back using only one main rocket engine.

Simplified hot fusion without expensive lasers

High beta fusion reactor - See the news story and exciting Lockheed Martin video describing a radically new compact hot fusion reactor design comparable in size to a commercial jet engine.  The plasma pressure/magnetic pressure reactor is about 2x2x4 meters in size.  Lockheed Martin hopes to meet global baseload electricity demand by the year 2050. 

Boron-hydrogen fusion - Tri Alpha Energy uses a simplified form of high temperature fusion that uses boron and hydrogen as fuel.  The fusion products are broken up into three helium-4 nuclei and three alpha particles, a process that produces little or no radioactive waste.  Tri Alpha's reactor can theoretically create electricity directly with no turbine required, increasing efficiency while reducing size and construction costs.  Tri Alpha's concept is so appealing that famed Microsoft co-founder, Paul Allen, has invested millions of dollars into the highly secretive Rancho Santa Margarita based company.  NEWS!  Tri Alpha has reported new progress in simplified hot fusion.

Please see my main website with overview of all major energy sources, The Renewable Energy Disaster, and watch the dramatic 15 minute YouTube video, The Global Biofuel Disaster.

Christopher Calder
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