The Fusion Revolution

Lockheed Martin's simplified hot fusion reactor
Lockheed Martin fusion reator
Lockheed Martin has a website and video describing their radically new compact high beta hot fusion reactor.  The reactor is only about 2x2x4 meters in size.  Lockheed Martin hopes to meet global baseload electricity demand by the year 2050. 

General Fusion

General Fusion

General Fusion has a "Magnetized Target Fusion system that uses a sphere filled with molten lead-lithium that is pumped to form a vortex.  On each pulse, magnetically-confined plasma is injected into the vortex.  Around the sphere, an array of pistons impact and drive a pressure wave into the centre of the sphere,compressing the plasma to fusion conditions."

Boron-hydrogen fusion 

Tri Alpha

Tri Alpha Energy uses a simplified form of high temperature fusion that uses boron and hydrogen as fuel.  The fusion products are broken up into three helium-4 nuclei and three alpha particles, a process that produces little or no radioactive waste.  Tri Alpha's reactor can theoretically create electricity directly with no turbine required, increasing efficiency while reducing size and construction costs.  Tri Alpha's concept is so appealing that famed Microsoft co-founder, Paul Allen, has invested millions of dollars in this Rancho Santa Margarita based company.

Low Energy Nuclear Reaction (LENR)
    
Brillouin Energy Corporation has multiple devices based on LENR technology under development.  One device is a simple hot water heater that uses ordinary water (which releases hydrogen) and nickel as fuel.  This device has a low COP but is inexpensive to build and could safely be used in homes to replace standard home water heaters.  Brillouin also has a more complex nickel powder and hydrogen gas device in development with a potentially higher COP.  Brillouin has signed a licensing contract with a South Korean company that wishes to use their clean energy technology.  Brillouin has an interesting YouTube animation video showing what they believe is the underlying mechanism of their LENR device, which they call a "Control Electron Capture Reaction." See their patent application, Control of Low Energy Nuclear Reaction in Hydrides, and Autonomously Controlled Heat Generation Module.

NEWS!  Brillouin hosts information session on Capitol Hill - Members of Congress show interest in LENR

b1

     "Brillouin Energy’s technology is based on Low Energy Nuclear Reactions (“LENR”), which it generates in its uniquely designed reactor core unit that converts ordinary hydrogen into helium through a sequence of continuous and controlled nuclear reactions. The mass of helium is slightly less than the mass of the four hydrogen nuclei that are consumed; that mass difference is converted into a relatively large amount of thermal energy in accordance with Einstein’s famous formula: E = mc2".


STMicroelectronics S.R.L. of Switzerland, one of the world’s largest semiconductor companies, has filed a LENR patent application. 

Toyota scientists have replicated Mitsubishi's cold fusion and element transmutation experiments.

Unified Gravity Corporation claims to be working on a Hydrogen Lithium Fusion Device.  They state that "the largest high-energy particle peak count rates achieved with the alpha particle detection system have exceeded 500,000 CPS with energies around 5 MeV after penetrating a 25 micron thick grounded aluminized mylar shield directly in front of a stainless steel disk with a 1 micron diameter aperture positioned at a distance of 4 cm from the proton-lithium plasma."

NASA on LENR

     "A cheap, abundant, clean, scalable, portable source of energy will impact EVERYONE." - "Singular solution to peak oil, climate change, fresh water, and associated geopolitical instabilities." - "Transmutation products [of LENR are] most consistent with neutron absorption process."— Dr. Joseph M. Zawodny, NASA Langley Research Center

     "The temperature you can get out of [LENR] is interesting.” - “We’ve had to be careful [in our research in] terms of the energetics.  I don’t think there is a power [limitation] problem." — NASA scientist Dennis Bushnell

See NASA pdf files on LENR - Zawodny  Bushnnell  Nelson and NASA-Zawodny LENR patent 

NASA concept LENR space planeNASA LENR rocket conceptspace plane 2

NASA concept for LENR space plane that flies from airport to orbit and back using only one main rocket engine.


The hot as fire E-Cat controversy


one megawatt reactor
Old style one megawatt E-Cat reactor

     On October 8th, 2014, an independent test report of Andrea Rossi’s E-Cat reactor was released by respected scientists from three different universities.  The tests were conducted in Lugano, Switzerland, at a independent laboratory to avoid any question of fraud.  The tests claimed to show that the E-Cat reactor produces excess heat that cannot be explained by any known chemical process.  Were the tests done properly and are the results valid?  Analysis of the fuel before and after the test showed 
isotopic changes that can only be explained by some form of nuclear reaction.  See "Observation of abundant heat production from a reactor device and of isotopic changes in the fuel".  Andrea Rossi was granted a US patent for the E-Cat on August 25, 2015.  On August 27th, 2015, Rossi filed an international patent application that reveals further details. 

The fuel mixture - The E-Cat fuel contains carbonyl nickel powder, pure lithium powder, and lithium aluminum hydride (LiAlH4).  Other possible ingredients include iron or steel dust, carbon powder, and tungsten.  Rossi states his new E-Cat QuarkX design uses some titanium in the fuel mixture.  You can find fuel preparation ideas herehere, and here.  The LENR reaction starts when the fuel mixture is heated inside the sealed reactor core and stimulated by a varying electromagnetic field, which is induced by modulating the electric current being fed into the heating coils.  No radioactive materials are used in the reactor and no radiation was detected emitting from the reactor during testing.  Almost everything in the reactor and fuel is recyclable.  Rossi claims that LENR can give the world electricity at a cost of just one cent per kilowatt hour when produced by large scale LENR power plants.  Even if we skeptically triple that cost to 3 cents per kilowatt hour, it is still an incredible bargain.  Will the E-Cat work as promised? 

NEWS! - Industrial Heat, LLC and Leonardo
Leonardo Corporation installed a one megawatt (heat) E-Cat reactor in Miami, Florida, for a 350 day long operational test.  The test ended on February 17th, 2016.  An independent third party scientist, Dr. Ing. Fabio Penon, was hired by Industrial Heat and Andrea Rossi to oversee the test measurements and write a report.  The reactor was never refueled during the test.  Rossi has filed a lawsuit against Industrial Heat for patent violation and breach of contract for refusing to pay funds on test completion.  Industrial Heat has acquired other LENR companies and hired other LENR scientists.  Rossi appears to feel that Industrial Heat has illegally transfered parts of his E-Cat technology to those other companies and scientists.  Quoted from the lawsuit:  "73. More specifically, the ERV found that over the Guaranteed Performance period, the amount of energy produced by the E-Cat Unit was consistently substantially greater than six (6) times the amount of energy consumed by the unit.  In fact, the ERV found that during the testing period, the average energy multiplier (Energy Produced + Energy Consumed) was often greater than sixty (60)".  Rossi states that the full report will be released soon when he gets permission from his lawyers.  Industrial Heat has vigorously rejected Rossi claims and promises to prove the suit is without merit.   See story.  Who do you believe?  Is the E-Cat a hoax or a miracle of 21st century science?  This author is agnostic until more information is made public. 

You can keep up with the dramatic, soap opera like E-Cat controversy through http://www.e-catworld.com/

Here is a partial list of companies and organizations that have reported positive LENR test results.  There are many other organizations, companies, scientific teams, and individual scientists who have also reported positive test results.  
No doubt there is also much research that is going on in secret.

Molten salt fission nuclear reactors - the backup plan 
MSR    

     If simplified hot fusion technology and Low Energy Nuclear Reaction does not work as hoped, the world has alternative number three in the form of molten salt fission nuclear reactors.  While less desirable than LENR and simplified hot fusion technology, we know that molten salt reactors work because they have already been built and tested during the 1950s through 1970s.  Molten salt reactors are inherently safer and simpler than light water nuclear reactors, and they are cheaper to build and maintain.  Molten salt reactors can run on uranium or on plutonium fuel salvaged from old nuclear warheads.  They can also be used to breed new uranium-233 fuel from the Earth's inexhaustible supply of low cost thorium.  A Canadian company called Terrestrial Energy has a plan to start producing simple molten salt uranium based reactors and gradually transition over time to more advanced thorium molten salt reactors.  Molten salt thorium reactors produce very little long term nuclear waste and are meltdown proof because the fuel is designed to be melted down right from the very beginning.  A new British company, Moltex, has similar plans. 

     All of the nuclear technologies described on this website have the potential to produce low cost reliable energy twenty-four hours a day, three hundred and sixty-ive days a year.  Reliability, high energy density, and low cost are essential qualities for any authentic replacement for fossil fuels, and they are qualities that biofuels, windmills, and solar schemes can never give us.  Please see my main website with overview of all major energy sources, The Renewable Energy Disaster, and watch the YouTube videos, The Global Biofuel Disaster and Windmills Kill Birds.

Christopher Calder      email = archive100 AT inbox DOT com

Christopher Calder is a nonprofit, nonpartisan advocate for world food supply security with no financial interest in any energy related business.