The Fusion Revolution
Low Energy Nuclear Reaction


"There is not the slightest indication that nuclear energy will ever be obtainable.  It would mean that the atom would have to be shattered at will." — Albert Einstein, 1932



     When the first human beings figured out how to make fire at will, life on Earth changed forever.  When LENR reactors hit the marketplace on a large scale, fossil fuels will gradually become obsolete, and human history will be dramatically altered.  A total switchover to Low Energy Nuclear Reaction will take decades, but basic economics tells us that LENR reactors will win in the marketplace over their more costly competitors.

The E-Cat

one megawatt reactor
First commercially installed E-Cat reactor (North Carolina)

NEWSFrom Wired Magazine,  THE COLD FUSION RACE JUST HEATED UP.  In addition to presenting many proven public facts, the article states that the “Russian media has repeated a rumor that President Obama discussed Chinese E-Cat production under license with Xi Jinping in his recent visit, a move that might destroy Russia's vital energy exports.”  Scientists in Russia and the Ukraine have reported to have replicated "the Rossi effect" in their own laboratories.  At least one scientist in the USA, George Miley (Lenuco LLC), reports success with nano-particle sized nickel dust and hydrogen gas.  Hints and rumors abound that suggest what is publicly known about independent replications of the Rossi effect around the world is "just the tip of the iceberg."  NEWS - Airbus Files Patent for LENR ‘Power-Generating Device’.

     On October 8th, 2014, an independent test report of Andrea Rossi’s E-Cat reactor was released by respected scientists from three different universities.  The tests were conducted in Lugano, Switzerland, at a independent laboratory to avoid any question of fraud.  The tests show conclusively that the E-Cat reactor produces large amounts of excess heat that cannot be explained by any known chemical process.  Analysis of the fuel before and after the test showed 
isotopic changes that can only be explained by some form of nuclear reaction.  See "Observation of abundant heat production from a reactor device and of isotopic changes in the fuel".  NEWS - For theoretical explanation, see "On the Nuclear Mechanisms Underlying the Heat Production by the “E-Cat (Paper written by Norman D. Cook and Andrea Rossi and published on arxiv.org)

     The E-Cat fuel is believed to have contained natural nickel powder, which Andrea Rossi once claimed was 99.999% pure in his first E-Cat models.  Also in the fuel
mix are lithium aluminum hydride (LiAlH4), iron powder, and carbon.  Some have speculated that the iron used is in the form of Grain Oriented Electrical Steel turned into a powder, while others suggest Rossi may be using simple pure iron powder.  No radioactive materials are used in the reactor and no radiation was detected emitting from the reactor during testing.  Almost everything in the reactor and fuel is recyclable.  wild guess fuel formula for qualified university laboratory experimenters might be to try 1 gram of 99.999% pure nickel powder in the 2 to 8 micron size, .1 gram of  lithium aluminum hydride, .1 gram of pure iron powder, and .1 gram of pure carbon powder.  A different educated guess and construction details by Hank Mills can be found here.  

     Dr. Alexander Parkhomov, a Russian scientist who claims to have at least partially duplicated the Rossi effect, stated that the heating coils must be powered by a “dirty” chopped AC waveform by using a thyristor controlled power supply.  Reporter Alan Smith clarified the remark by saying that a thyristor power supply gives an oscilloscope trace similar to an interrupted sine wave.  Even though the base frequency is only 50 or 60 c.p.s, such a system produces a broad range of harmonics.  It is these multi-frequency harmonics which trigger the reactions.”  See article.

     The reactor was run in a low efficiency test mode designed for the most accurate energy input and heat output measurements, and thus was not run in the normal commercially useful self-sustain mode which produces a much higher efficiency, which is expressed as coefficient of performance, or COP.  If a reactor has a COP of 3, it means the reactor outputs 3 times more energy than put into the reactor.  During this test in low efficiency mode the E-Cat produced between 3.2 and 3.6 times the energy put into the reactor.

     If the reactor had been set up in its normal high efficiency self-sustain mode, the COP would have likely been 8 or more, an estimate derived from previous test results of earlier generation E-Cats.  No official COP number has yet been claimed for the newest generation E-Cat, but even the earliest, unrefined versions claimed a COP of 6 in self-sustain mode.  Testing in self-sustain mode would be difficult because energy input would be turned on 25% of the time and turned off 75% of the time. The scientists wanted an easy test to prove the basic principle, not determine the highest possible COP, so they kept the energy input turned on 100% of the time, which naturally lowered the energy efficiency and COP of the reactor.

----------Quoted from the report----------

     "The reactor operating point was set to about 1260 C in the first half of the run, and at about 1400 C in the second half.  The measured energy balance between input and output heat yielded a COP factor of about 3.2 and 3.6 for the 1260 C and 1400 C runs, respectively.  The total net energy obtained during the 32 days run was about 1.5 Mwh.”

     "A sample of the fuel was carefully examined with respect to its isotopic composition before the run and after the run, using several standard methods: XPS, EDS, SIMS, ICP-MS and ICP-AES.  The isotope composition in Lithium and Nickel was found to agree with the natural composition before the run, while after the run it was found to have changed substantially.  Nuclear reactions are therefore indicated to be present in the run process, which however is hard to reconcile with the fact that no radioactivity was detected outside the reactor during the run."


     Industrial Heat, LLC has installed a one megawatt E-Cat reactor at a customer’s factory for a 400 day long operational test producing heat for an industrial process.  
After analyzing the results of the Lugano test, Rossi changed the fuel composition and control systems.  This has allowed the one megawatt reactor to run for longer periods of time with no energy input, resulting in a higher COP.  Mats Lewan, a usually reliable Swedish reporter, stated that "Since a COP ranging from 20 to 80 has been reported, I can confirm that I have got the same information."

     Well known environmentalist Tom Darden is Chairman of Industrial Heat LLC, and CEO of Cherokee Industrial Partners.  Darden says he does not care about the money, only in reducing air pollution.  Darden stated "I’m serious — it’s about air pollution and coal . . . Our company is called Industrial Heat.  Our job is to make industrial heat and industrial heat is made by coal… We don’t think any energy should be made by coal, so that’s why I’m doing this.  This could be a way to eliminate the use of coal."

E-Cats
                                      E-Cat reactor cell                          3 E-Cats in metal casings                                  One E-Cat reactor cell 
 
     Andrea Rossi's Energy Catalyzer (E-Cat) LENR reactor is fueled by micrometer sized nickel dust and hydrogen.  The nickel powder is processed to increase the number of surface protrusions to provide greater area for heat producing reactions with hydrogen.  
LENR may eventually replace the burning of oil, coal, and natural gas for heat.  See E-Cat patent application.     

     Rossi claims that LENR can give the world electricity at a cost of just one cent per kilowatt hour when produced by large scale LENR power plants.  Even if we skeptically triple that cost to 3 cents per kilowatt hour, it is still an incredible bargain. 
As LENR is a relatively new and inherently nontoxic technology, there are few major regulatory barriers to slow its rapid technological advance.  The growth of LENR technology may thus be as exponential in progression as the use of personal computers in the 1990s.  No precious metals are used in E-Cat or Defkalion Green Technologies reactors, and any company with the technological skills required to build an air conditioner can produce them in large numbers on assembly lines.  That means even poor, relatively undeveloped countries will be able to manufacture them.  LENR devices will eventually be used to power cars, trucks, trains, ships, aircraft, and spacecraft.  Imagine a luxury sedan you could drive for many thousands of miles without refueling, or a small aircraft you could fly from New York to Beijing nonstop at low cost. 

You can keep up with fast moving E-Cat events through http://www.e-catworld.com/

Solar Hydrogen Trends

"The US government can leverage this technology to pull itself from under this burdensome debt of 20 trillion dollars in a very short period of time." —  Jack Aganyan and Konstantin Balakiryan  

BIG NEWS!
 See Solar Hydrogen Trend's patent application and a related Internet news article.  


Solar Hydrogen Trends claims to have developed a 250 pound footlocker sized LENR reactor that can be used to transmute water, including the oxygen content of water, into 96.7% pure hydrogen gas.  They claim that the cost of producing a quantity of hydrogen gas with the energy content of one gallon of gasoline would be about nine cents.  The cost of producing electricity through burning this low cost hydrogen gas would be about .3 cents per kilowatt hour.  They state that "The technology provides a multifactorial hydrogen reactor with elevated hydrogen production due to a set of sixteen (16) physical and chemical processes, acting simultaneously on the hydrogen bonds.  The hydrogen reactor uses water as main fuel and its emissions are 100% clean (clean air)."

Solar Hydrogen Trends team
 Jack Aganyan - president                                          Konstantin Balakiryan, PhD - top scientist                             Kirill Gichunts - business mamager 
 
     Solar Hydrogen Trends first used AirKinetics, Inc. for testing, and they posted a signed test data page on their website.  In July, 2014, Solar Hydrogen Trends revealed even more positive test results, the latest conducted by TRC Solutions.  See the TRC test report pdf.  Solar Hydrogen Trends states that their discovery was purely accidental, and a result of experiments in how to extract precious metals from nature at higher rates of efficiency.  They state that this technology can be scaled up to replace fission nuclear power plants, and scaled down to power automobiles, trucks, trains, ships, and jet aircraft.  It would be an easy engineering task to design a 747 jetliner that runs on hydrogen gas as the water fuel contains more energy per pound than jet fuel.  A hydrogen reactor large enough to power a typical mid sized automobile would be about the size of a carton of cigarettes.  Should Saudi Arabia be worried?  Solar Hydrogen Trend's top scientist, Professor Konstantin Balakiryan, states that by passing just one barrel of ordinary water through their "Symphony7A" hydrogen reactor they can produce hydrogen fuel with the energy equivalent of burning three barrels of oil.  NEWS!  Solar Hydrogen Trends reports yet another positive test of their reactor was conducted on March 10th, 2015, this time by Horizon Air Measurement Services, Inc.  See press release and test results.  Solar Hydrogen Trends believes that one of the 16 processes they use in their reactor works like the Pistol Shrimp.  See a YouTube video of a Pistol Shrimp creating a 4000 degree Celsius underwater weapon.

PERSONAL NOTE - From my point of view, Solar Hydrogen Trends is an intriguing WILD CARD company that we should follow with a combination of caution and hope.  Professor Konstantin Balakiryan, PhD, their top scientist, was the head of the physics, chemistry, and mathematics department at the Russian University of Friendship in Moscow.  "His primary research included study of fast processes in liquids and acoustical resonance; physical phenomena associated with acoustic waves in water solutions from infrasound to hypersound, and the use of acoustics as a tool to investigate other significant phenomena."  He has also has received medical patents, including techniques for enabling rapid healing of displasia.  Konstantin Balakiryan speaks Armenian, which is his native language, and is fluent in Russian and Georgian.  He can also carry on a reasonable conversation in English, Spanish, Ukrainian, Bulgarian, and Polish.  The entire Solar Hydrogen Trends staff has excellent credentials, so those who would dismiss their claims as impossible might want to wait a little to see how this news plays out.  Would such smart, well educated people really try to commit a fraud that could only end in their disgrace?  At his advanced age, Konstantin certainly values his excellent reputation more than money.  I have never tested their device and do not know for sure that it works as advertised, but I certainly do not dismiss their technology out of hand, which now has third party verification from at least three respected testing laboratories.  

     What makes their story believable to me is the fact they state this difficult to explain phenomena was discovered by accident.  In my opinion, no one in their right mind would consider wasting time trying to achieve the cold fission of oxygen atoms into multiple hydrogen atoms.  The fact that it sounds so preposterous makes it more believable to me.  They say that it is a "gift from nature", and they do not brag that they created this super-technology through planned effort.  Once they discovered that their precious metals purification device produced copious amounts of hydrogen gas, they switched from looking for gold to producing low cost hydrogen gas.  If their product does work, then the energy crisis is over because their device has an incredibly high COP, measured at 900 to over 1,400 during three separate tests.  This technology would be more easily usable for all applications than any energy source in history, and would have massive potential for producing chemicals as well.  This 21st century technology could transform the energy marketplace overnight if it is 100% proven and accepted as fact by market traders.  The trading market price we pay for oil, coal, and natural gas is based on expectations for future demand and a finite supply.  If market traders understand that there will be no future demand for using fossil fuels as an energy source, then what will happen to the price of oil, coal, and natural gas?


     If this technology is real and not some horrendous gas measuring error, then the best automotive application might be through use of an internal combustion engine, such as the new 
EcoMotors International opposed-piston opposed-cylinder (OPOC) engine.  This might be less expensive than using a fuel cell, as the EcoMotors engine is highly compact and uses 50% fewer parts than a typical automobile engine.  96.7% pure hydrogen gas can easily be burned in an internal combustion engine, but might not work well in a fuel cell unless the fuel cell is custom designed to handle impurities.  The EcoMotors engine has low construction costs and is highly efficient, and as a bonus it produces lots of torque.  The EcoMotors engine is currently being manufactured to run on diesel fuel, but the company states that it can easily be altered to run on natural gas, and thus presumably on hydrogen gas as well.  Building an automobile with this combination of technologies would be a dream come true for automobile enthusiasts, but is it real?  We should know the answer to that question fairly soon. 

Is this our future?
Lockheed Martin jetliner
Lockheed Martin supersonic jetliner concept could be adapted to hydrogen gas fuel.


Defkalion Green Technologies

     Defkalion Green Technologies states that their Hyperion LENR reactor cores contain ordinary H2 hydrogen gas, nickel powder, and proprietary materials and structures to aid in the reaction.  Simple resistance heating elements are turned on to excite the hydrogen gas.  The naturally occurring H2 atoms are further excited by bursts of electrical discharges via a spark plug-like device which breaks the H2 into H1 gas and transforms H1 atoms into Rydberg State Hydrogen (RSH) atoms, which have very large elliptical electron (cloud) orbits.  The excited RSH hydrogen atoms are then squeezed into the nickel atom latticework.  "For a brief period of around 10 -13th second, each RSH proton is very close to its electron.  Then the RSH nuclei is a masqueraded neutron.  As a result, Coulomb forces between such nuclei are almost zero during this short time window."  The resulting reaction releases gamma rays and light which are absorbed inside the reactor to produce heat.  It is interesting to note that Defkalion no longer uses any chemical catalyst to break H2 gas into H1 because their "plasma ignition" method does it all.  Unlike Andrea Rossi's design, resistance heating elements are only required during the initial start-up phase of the reaction.
H1 hydrogen atom - round orbit cloudelliptical orbit of electron cloud
   

Hyperion reactor prototype

Read about Defkalion's plan to produce electricity for one cent per kilowatt hour in an interview with Alex Xanthoulis

Other LENR pioneers
 
Brillouin Energy Corporation has functioning LENR technology similar to Rossi and Defkalion.  One device they have in development is a simple hot water heater that uses ordinary water (which releases hydrogen) and nickel as fuel.  This device has a low COP but is inexpensive to build and could safely be used in homes to replace standard home water heaters.  Brillouin also has a more complex nickel powder and hydrogen gas device in development with a potentially higher COP.  Brillouin has signed a licensing contract with a South Korean company that wishes to use their clean energy technology.  Brillouin has an interesting YouTube animation video showing what they believe is the underlying mechanism of their LENR device, which they call a "Control Electron Capture Reaction." See their patent application, Control of Low Energy Nuclear Reaction in Hydrides, and Autonomously Controlled Heat Generation Module.

Global Energy Corporation (GEC)
has plans for a hybrid cold fusion-fission reactor, the GeNiE Hybrid Fusion Reactor.  "The GeNiE Reactor takes advantage of the efficiently produced high-energy neutrons in a proprietary hybrid fusion, fast-fission reactor design to produce power from un-enriched uranium.  The GeNiE Reactor is not prone to melt down since it doesn't rely on a chain-reaction to produce high-energy neutrons. The GeNiE Reactor will extract more energy from the fuel than conventional nuclear reactors.  The GeNiE Reactor is lower cost since it doesn't required enriched uranium and it doesn't produce hazardous nuclear waste that is costly to handle. By fissioning existing hazardous waste, the GeNiE Reactor can generate power and mitigate existing hazardous waste at the same time."  This reactor design was partially based on breakthrough research conducted by the United States Navy research center, SPAWAR.  More details here.  You can see an intriguing short YouTube video on the history of the U.S. Navy's SPAWAR's LENR research here.

STMicroelectronics S.R.L. of Switzerland, one of the world’s largest semiconductor companies, has filed a LENR patent application. 

Toyota scientists have replicated Mitsubishi's cold fusion and element transmutation experiments.

NASA on LENR

     "A cheap, abundant, clean, scalable, portable source of energy will impact EVERYONE." - "Singular solution to peak oil, climate change, fresh water, and associated geopolitical instabilities." - "Transmutation products [of LENR are] most consistent with neutron absorption process."— Dr. Joseph M. Zawodny, NASA Langley Research Center

     "The temperature you can get out of [LENR] is interesting.” - “We’ve had to be careful [in our research in] terms of the energetics.  I don’t think there is a power [limitation] problem." — NASA scientist Dennis Bushnell

See NASA pdf files on LENR - Zawodny  Bushnnell  Nelson and NASA-Zawodny LENR patent 

NASA concept LENR space planeNASA LENR rocket conceptspace plane 2

NASA concept for LENR space plane that flies from airport to orbit and back using only one main rocket engine.

It starts with a dream!  LENR Cars is a very small Swiss startup company that hopes to change the world.  How long will it take to create the first affordable LENR powered automobile? 

Here is a partial list of companies and organizations that have reported positive LENR test results.  There are many other organizations, companies, scientific teams, and individual scientists who have also reported positive test results.  
No doubt there is also much research that is going on in secret.

In an informative YouTube video, former MIT professor and scientist, the late Dr. Eugene Mallove, detailed the history of the cold fusion cover-up by MIT scientists with financial interests in hot fusion research, and by the United States Patent Office.

NEWS!  Graphical 3D Modeling and Analysis of Molecules and Nanostructures with the BSM-SG Atomic Models  —  Does this explain LENR?  Another theory is Widom Larsen, which is explained on an interesting YouTube program (from 2011) and through a slide show (published in 2014).  Which of the dozens of theories being proposed will win out in the end?
 
Simplified hot fusion without expensive lasers

High beta fusion reactor - See the news story and exciting Lockheed Martin video describing a radically new compact hot fusion reactor design comparable in size to a commercial jet engine.  The plasma pressure/magnetic pressure reactor is about 2x2x4 meters in size.  Lockheed Martin hopes to meet global baseload electricity demand by the year 2050. 

Boron-hydrogen fusion - Tri Alpha Energy uses a simplified form of high temperature fusion that uses boron and hydrogen as fuel.  The fusion products are broken up into three helium-4 nuclei and three alpha particles, a process that produces little or no radioactive waste.  Tri Alpha's reactor can theoretically create electricity directly with no turbine required, increasing efficiency while reducing size and construction costs.  Tri Alpha's concept is so appealing that famed Microsoft co-founder, Paul Allen, has invested millions of dollars into the highly secretive Rancho Santa Margarita based company.  Tri Alpha has received additional new funding from the government of Russian on top of private U.S. investors.

Please support and promote The National Food Security Act, which is needed to protect the affordability and long term survivability of the human food supply.


Please see my main website with overview of all major energy sources, The Renewable Energy Disaster
, and the dramatic 15 minute YouTube video, The Global Biofuel Disaster.

Christopher Calder
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