The Fusion Revolution
The Fusion Revolution
Low Energy Nuclear Reaction
is not the slightest indication that nuclear energy will ever be
obtainable. It would mean that the atom would have to be
shattered at will." — Albert Einstein, 1932
When the first human beings figured out how to
make fire at will, life on Earth changed forever.
When LENR reactors hit the marketplace on a large scale, fossil fuels will gradually
obsolete, and human history will be dramatically altered. A total
switchover to Low Energy Nuclear Reaction will take decades, but basic economics tells
us that LENR reactors will win in the marketplace over their more
On October 8th, 2014, an independent test report
of Andrea Rossi’s E-Cat reactor was released by respected scientists
from three different universities. The tests were conducted in
Switzerland at a independent laboratory to avoid any question
of fraud. The tests show conclusively that the E-Cat reactor
produces large amounts of excess heat that cannot be explained by any
known chemical process. Analysis of the fuel before and after the
test showed isotopic changes
that can only be explained by some form of nuclear reaction.
The E-Cat fuel contained nickel powder (about 55% by weight in the form of
micrometer sized grains), iron powder (about 39%), and lithium aluminum hydride (LiAlH4. about 6%). The fuel also contained trace amounts of C, Ca, Cl, Fe,
and Mn, which may or may not be contaminants. Defkalion Green Technologies stated that they use nickel powder in the 3 to 7
micron size in their LENR reactors, but Rossi's nickel dust appears to be slightly smaller in size on average. Rossi
once said that he processes the nickel powder to
increase the number of surface tubercles (protrusions) to provide
greater area for heat producing reactions with hydrogen gas. Iron dust is added to help break
H2 gas into H1 gas. The lithium aluminum hydride (LiAlH4) is used as a catalyst and
supply the hydrogen gas. No radioactive
used in the
reactor and no radiation was detected emitting from the reactor during
testing. Almost everything in the reactor and fuel is
The reactor was run in a low
efficiency test mode designed for the most accurate energy input and
heat output measurements, and thus was not run in the normal
useful self-sustain mode which produces a much higher efficiency, which is expressed as coefficient
of performance, or COP. If a reactor has a COP of 3, it means the
reactor outputs 3 times more energy than put into the reactor.
During this test in low efficiency mode the E-Cat produced
between 3.2 and 3.6 times the energy put into the
If the reactor had been set up
its normal high efficiency self-sustain mode, the COP would have
likely been 8 or more, an estimate derived from previous
test results of earlier generation E-Cats. No
official COP number has yet been claimed for the newest generation
E-Cat, but even the earliest, unrefined versions claimed a COP of 6 in
self-sustain mode. Testing in self-sustain mode would be
difficult because energy input would be turned on 25% of the time and
turned off 75% of the time. The scientists wanted an easy test to prove
the basic principle, not determine the highest possible COP, so they
kept the energy input turned on 100% of the time, which naturally
lowered the energy efficiency and COP of the reactor.
----------Quoted from the report----------
reactor operating point was set to about 1260 ºC in the first half of
the run, and at about 1400 °C in the second half. The measured energy
balance between input and output heat yielded a COP factor of about 3.2
and 3.6 for the 1260 ºC and 1400 ºC runs, respectively. The total net
energy obtained during the 32 days run was about 1.5 Mwh.”
sample of the fuel was carefully examined with respect to its isotopic
composition before the run and after the run, using several standard
methods: XPS, EDS, SIMS, ICP-MS and ICP-AES. The isotope composition in
Lithium and Nickel was found to agree with the natural composition
before the run, while after the run it was found to have changed
substantially. Nuclear reactions are therefore indicated to be present
in the run process, which however is hard to reconcile with the fact
that no radioactivity was detected outside the reactor during the run."
See "Observation of abundant heat production from a reactor device and of isotopic changes in the fuel" at: http://www.elforsk.se/Global/Omv%C3%A4rld_system/filer/LuganoReportSubmit.pdf
It should be noted that it was Industrial Heat, LLC, not Andrea Rossi,
that manufactured the E-Cat reactor tested in Switzerland.
Rossi had no opportunity at any time to rig the independent third party
Industrial Heat, LLC now
owns all E-Cat technology and has installed a
commercially operating one megawatt E-Cat reactor at a customer’s
factory for a year long operational test. The reactor is now
producing heat for an industrial
process. At some point in the near future tours of the factory
installed E-Cat will be allowed and a statement by the industrial
customer will be made. Well known passionate environmentalist, Tom Darden,
is Chairman of Industrial Heat LLC, and CEO of Cherokee Industrial
Partners. Darden says he does not care about the money, only
in reducing air pollution. Darden stated "I’m
serious — it’s about air pollution and coal . . . Our company is called
Industrial Heat. Our job is to make industrial heat and
industrial heat is made by coal… We don’t think any energy should be
made by coal, so that’s why I’m doing this. This could be a way
to eliminate the use of coal."
Italian engineer Andrea Rossi's Energy Catalyzer (E-Cat)
LENR reactor is
micrometer sized nickel dust and hydrogen. The nickel powder
is processed to
increase the number of
surface protrusions to provide greater area for heat
producing reactions with hydrogen. Rossi now claims that his
device does not produce heat through fusion, but through other
non-chemical nuclear reactions which he will detail after he is granted United
States patent protection. LENR may eventually replace
of oil, coal, and natural gas for heat. See E-Cat patent application.
3 E-Cats in metal casings
weighs 452 grams.
Rossi claims that LENR can
give the world electricity at a cost of just one cent per
kilowatt hour when produced by large scale LENR power plants. Even if we skeptically triple that cost
to 3 cents
per kilowatt hour, it is still an incredible bargain. As LENR is a relatively new and inherently
nontoxic technology, there are few major regulatory
barriers to slow its rapid technological advance. The growth of
LENR technology may thus be as exponential in progression as the use of
personal computers in the 1990s. No precious
metals are used in E-Cat or Defkalion Green Technologies reactors, and any company with the
required to build an air conditioner can produce them in large
numbers on assembly lines. That means even poor, relatively
undeveloped countries will be able to manufacture them. LENR
devices will eventually
be used to power cars, trucks, trains, ships, aircraft, and
spacecraft. Imagine a luxury sedan you could drive for many
miles without refueling, or a small aircraft you
could fly from New York to Beijing nonstop at low cost.
Defkalion Green Technologies
Green Technologies states that their Hyperion LENR reactor cores contain ordinary H2 hydrogen gas, nickel
and proprietary materials and structures to aid in the reaction.
Simple resistance heating elements are turned on to excite the hydrogen
The naturally occurring H2 atoms are further excited by bursts of
electrical discharges via a spark plug-like device which breaks the H2
into H1 gas and transforms H1 atoms into Rydberg State Hydrogen
(RSH) atoms, which have very large elliptical electron (cloud)
orbits. The excited RSH hydrogen atoms are then squeezed into the
nickel atom latticework. "For a brief period of around 10 -13th second,
each RSH proton is very close to its electron. Then the RSH
nuclei is a masqueraded neutron. As a result, Coulomb forces
between such nuclei are almost zero during this short time window." The resulting reaction releases gamma rays and light which are absorbed inside the reactor to produce heat. It is interesting to note that Defkalion no
longer uses any chemical catalyst to break H2 gas into H1 because their
"plasma ignition" method does it all. Unlike Andrea Rossi's
design, resistance heating elements are only required during the
initial start-up phase of the reaction.
NEWS! Read about Defkalion's plan to produce electricity for one cent per kilowatt hour in an interview with Alex Xanthoulis. They hope to have a finalized prototype ready for mass production sometime in 2014.
NEWS! Graphical 3D Modeling and Analysis of Molecules and Nanostructures with the BSM-SG Atomic Models — Does this explain LENR? Which theory will win out in the end?
Solar Hydrogen Trends
Solar Hydrogen Trends claims
to have developed a 250 pound footlocker sized LENR reactor
that can be used to transmute water, including the oxygen content
water, into 96.7% pure hydrogen gas. They claim that the
cost of producing a quantity of hydrogen gas with the energy content of
one gallon of gasoline would be about nine cents. The cost
of producing electricity through burning this low cost
hydrogen gas would be about .0027 cents per kilowatt hour. They state that "The
technology provides a multifactorial hydrogen reactor with elevated
hydrogen production due to a set of sixteen (16) physical and chemical
processes, acting simultaneously on the hydrogen bonds. The
hydrogen reactor uses water as main fuel and its emissions are 100%
clean (clean air)."
Jack Aganyan -
Konstantine Balakiryan, PhD - top
Kirill Gichunts - business guy with degree from U.C.
Solar Hydrogen Trends first used AirKinetics, Inc. for testing, and they posted a signed test data page on their website. In July, 2014, Solar Hydrogen Trends revealed even more positive test results, the latest conducted by TRC Solutions. See the TRC test report pdf. Solar
states that their discovery was purely accidental, and a
result of experiments in how to extract precious metals from
nature at higher rates of efficiency. They state that this
up to replace fission nuclear power
plants, and scaled down to power automobiles, trucks, trains, ships,
and jet aircraft. It would be an easy engineering task to design
a 747 jetliner that runs on hydrogen gas as the water fuel contains
more energy per pound than jet fuel. A hydrogen reactor
large enough to power a typical mid sized automobile would be about the
size of a carton of cigarettes. Should Saudi Arabia be worried?
Solar Hydrogen Trend's top scientist, Professor Konstantine Balakiryan, states
that by passing just one barrel of ordinary water through their
"Symphony7A" hydrogen reactor they can produce hydrogen fuel with the energy equivalent of burning
three barrels of oil. How much does one
barrel of water cost compared to three barrels of oil? You
do the math.
- Professor Konstantine Balakiryan, PhD, is the founder and CEO of Solar Hydrogen Trends Inc. Konstantine was the head of
the physics, chemistry, and mathematics department at the Russian
University of Friendship in Moscow. "His
primary research included study of fast processes in liquids and
acoustical resonance; physical phenomena associated with acoustic waves
in water solutions from infrasound to hypersound, and the use of
acoustics as a tool to investigate other significant phenomena." He has also has received medical patents, including techniques for enabling rapid healing of displasia. Konstantine speaks Russian, Armenian, and Georgian fluently, and
can carry on a reasonable conversation in English, Spanish, Ukrainian,
Bulgarian, and Polish.
The entire Solar Hydrogen Trends staff has excellent credentials,
so those who would dismiss their claims as impossible might want to
wait a little to see how this news plays out. Would such smart,
well educated people really try to commit a fraud that could only end
in their disgrace? At his advanced age, Konstantine certainly
his excellent reputation more than money. I have never tested
their device and do not know for sure that it works as advertised, but
I certainly do not dismiss their technology, which now has third party
verification from at least two respected testing laboratories.
their story believable to me is the fact
that they state this amazing beneficial phenomena was discovered by accident. To
no one in their right mind would consider wasting time trying to
achieve the cold fission of oxygen atoms into multiple hydrogen atoms.
The fact that it sounds so preposterous makes it more believable
to me. They say that it is a "gift from nature",
and they do not brag that
they created this
super-technology through planned effort. Once they discovered
that their precious metals purification device produced copious amounts
hydrogen gas, they switched from looking for gold to producing low cost
hydrogen gas. If their product does work, then the energy crisis
is over because their
device has an incredibly high COP, measured at over 1,400 in their last
third party test, and their reactor design is continually improving.
This technology would be more
easily usable for all applications than any energy source in history,
and would have massive potential for producing chemicals as well.
Creating an automobile or jet aircraft powered with
their technology could conceivably be accomplished in a matter of
years or decades. This 21st
century technology could transform the energy
marketplace overnight if it is 100% proven and
accepted as fact by market traders. The trading market price
we pay for oil, coal, and natural gas is based on expectations for
future demand and a finite supply. If market traders
understand that there will be no future demand for using fossil fuels
as an energy source, then what will happen to the price of oil, coal,
and natural gas?
Other LENR pioneers
Brillouin Energy Corporation
has functioning LENR technology similar to Rossi and Defkalion.
One device they have in development is a simple hot
water heater that uses ordinary water (which releases hydrogen) and
nickel as fuel. This device has a low COP but is inexpensive to build and could safely be
used in homes to replace standard home water heaters. Brillouin also has a more complex nickel
hydrogen gas device in development with a potentially higher COP. Brillouin has signed a licensing contract with a South
Korean company that wishes to use their clean energy technology. Brillouin has an interesting YouTube animation video
showing what they believe is the underlying mechanism of their LENR
device, which they call a "Control Electron Capture Reaction." See their patent application, Control of Low Energy Nuclear Reaction in Hydrides, and Autonomously Controlled Heat Generation Module.
Global Energy Corporation (GEC) has plans for a hybrid cold fusion-fission reactor, the GeNiE Hybrid (cold) Fusion Reactor. "The GeNiE Reactor takes advantage of the efficiently produced
high-energy neutrons in a proprietary hybrid fusion, fast-fission
reactor design to produce power from un-enriched uranium. The GeNiE
Reactor is not prone to melt down since it doesn't rely on a
chain-reaction to produce high-energy neutrons. The GeNiE Reactor will
extract more energy from the fuel than conventional nuclear reactors.
The GeNiE Reactor is lower cost since it doesn't required enriched
uranium and it doesn't produce hazardous nuclear waste that is costly
to handle. By fissioning existing hazardous waste, the GeNiE Reactor
can generate power and mitigate existing hazardous waste at the same
time." This new reactor design was partially based on breakthrough
research conducted by the United States Navy research center, SPAWAR. More details here.
STMicroelectronics S.R.L. of Switzerland, one of the world’s largest semiconductor companies, has filed a LENR patent application.
Toyota scientists have replicated Mitsubishi's cold fusion and element transmutation experiments.
NASA on LENR
cheap, abundant, clean, scalable, portable source of energy will impact
EVERYONE." - "Singular solution to peak oil, climate change, fresh
water, and associated geopolitical instabilities." - "Transmutation
products [of LENR are] most consistent with neutron absorption process."— Dr. Joseph M. Zawodny, NASA Langley Research Center
"The temperature you can get out of [LENR] is interesting.” - “We’ve had to be careful [in our
research in] terms of the energetics. I don’t think there is a
power [limitation] problem." — NASA scientist Dennis Bushnell
NASA concept for LENR space plane that flies from airport to orbit and back
using only one main rocket engine.
It starts with a dream! LENR Cars is
a very small Swiss startup company that hopes to change the world. How
long will it take to create the first affordable LENR powered
Here is a partial list of companies and organizations that have reported positive LENR test
results. There are many other organizations,
companies, scientific teams, and individual scientists who have
also reported positive test results. No doubt there is also much research that is going on in secret.
In an informative YouTube video,
former MIT professor and scientist, the late Dr. Eugene Mallove,
detailed the history of the cold fusion cover-up by MIT scientists with
financial interests in hot
fusion research, and by the United States Patent Office.
The major competition to LENR - Simplified hot fusion without expensive lasers
High beta fusion reactor - See the news story and exciting Lockheed Martin video describing a radically new compact hot
fusion reactor design comparable in size to a commercial
jet engine. The plasma pressure/magnetic pressure reactor is about
2x2x4 meters in size. Lockheed Martin hopes to meet global baseload
electricity demand by the year 2050.
Boron-hydrogen fusion - Tri Alpha Energy
uses a simplified form of high temperature fusion that uses boron and hydrogen as fuel. The fusion products are broken up into three
helium-4 nuclei and three alpha particles, a process that produces
little or no radioactive waste. Tri Alpha's reactor can
create electricity directly with no turbine required, increasing
efficiency while reducing size and construction costs. Tri Alpha's
concept is so appealing that famed Microsoft co-founder, Paul Allen,
has invested millions of dollars into the highly secretive Rancho Santa
Margarita based company. Tri Alpha has received additional new funding from the government of Russian on top of private U.S. investors.
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