The Fusion Revolution
The Fusion Revolution
[a.k.a. The LENR Revolution - Low Energy Nuclear Reaction]
When the first human animal figured out how to
make fire at will, life on earth changed forever.
When LENR reactors hit the marketplace on a large scale, which should
happen sometime in the very near future, fossil fuels will gradually
obsolete, and human history will be dramatically altered. A total
switchover to Low Energy Nuclear Reaction will take decades, but basic economics tells
us that LENR reactors will win in the marketplace over their more
The E-Cat and Hot-Cat
NEWS! Press Release - Industrial Heat Has Acquired Andrea Rossi's E-Cat Technology
"Mr. Vaughn confirmed IH acquired the intellectual property and
licensing rights to Rossi's LENR device after an independent committee
of European scientists conducted two multi-day tests at Rossi's
facilities in Italy."
Italian engineer Andrea Rossi's Energy Catalyzer (E-Cat)
LENR reactor is
micrometer sized nickel dust and hydrogen gas. The nickel powder
is processed to
increase the number of
surface protrusions to provide greater area for heat
producing reactions with hydrogen gas under pressure. A chemical
catalyst is added to the nickel to
break the H2 gas into H1.
Speculations as to possible catalytic agents include iron dust
combined with pure carbon powder, potassium carbonate, and lithium
hydride. Heat is applied to
the pressurized nickel-hydrogen mixture which initiates low energy nuclear reactions (LENR).
Rossi has promised to reveal his theory of how LENR works after he obtains patent protection, and now claims that it is not fusion.
Brillouin Energy Corporation calls LENR a “Controlled Electron Capture
Reaction” that forces electrons to combine with
the protons of hydrogen atoms to produce slow moving neutrons inside a metal
lattice. This reaction creates a variety of short lived
isotopes, helium, and heat. See Brillouin Energy Corporation's computer animation of how this process works. Defkalion
Green Technologies reports they are using
built test equipment to develop their own theory.
What they all agree upon is that LENR works, and is very different
from hot fusion reactions. No
matter which theory eventually becomes accepted as fact, LENR
represents an energy
source many times greater than the Earth's natural reservoir of
stored in fossil fuels. LENR may eventually replace
of oil, coal, and natural gas for heat. Andrea
Rossi states that converting just one gram of matter into energy,
nickel or any other element, produces 23,000 megawatt hours of heat
energy. Using nickel as nuclear fuel for all human
needs would only consume about 1% of the Earth's yearly nickel
production. The Earth will be consumed by the Sun before we run
out of nickel. [See nickel price charts]
Above is a single Andrea Rossi Hot-Cat LENR reactor cell claimed to
operate at 1,050 degrees Celsius.
Rossi claims that LENR can
give the world electricity at a cost of just one cent per
kilowatt hour when produced by large scale LENR power plants. Even if we skeptically triple that cost
to 3 cents
per kilowatt hour, it is still an incredible bargain. We
currently pay at least 40 cents per kilowatt hour for
intermittent electricity produced by solar panels, 15 cents per
kilowatt hour for unpredictable wind power electricity, and 8 cents per
hour for electricity produced with natural gas. An extensive third party test report of Andrea Rossi's first generation "Hot Cat" reactor states that it works. See the pdf report. "Computed
volumetric and gravimetric energy densities were found to be far above
those of any known chemical source. Even by the most conservative
assumptions as to the errors in the measurements, the result is still
one order of magnitude greater than conventional energy sources."
As LENR is a relatively new and inherently
nontoxic technology, there are few major regulatory
barriers to slow its rapid technological advance. The growth of
LENR technology may thus be as exponential in progression as the use of
personal computers in the 1990s. No precious
metals are used in E-Cat or Defkalion reactors, and any company with the
required to build an air conditioner can produce them in large
numbers on assembly lines. That means even poor, relatively
undeveloped countries will be able to manufacture them. LENR
devices will eventually
be used to power cars, trucks, trains, ships, aircraft, and
spacecraft. Imagine a luxury sedan you could drive for many
miles without refueling, or a small aircraft you
could fly from New York to Beijing nonstop at low cost.
Defkalion Green Technologies
Green Technologies states that their Hyperion LENR reactor cores contain ordinary H2 hydrogen gas, nickel
and proprietary materials and structures to aid in the reaction.
Simple resistance heating elements are turned on to excite the hydrogen
The naturally occurring H2 atoms are further excited by bursts of
electrical discharges via a spark plug-like device which breaks the H2
into H1 gas and transforms H1 atoms into Rydberg State Hydrogen
(RSH) atoms, which have very large elliptical electron (cloud)
orbits. The excited RSH hydrogen atoms are then squeezed into the
nickel atom latticework. "For a brief period of around 10 -13th second,
each RSH proton is very close to its electron. Then the RSH
nuclei is a masqueraded neutron. As a result, Coulomb forces
between such nuclei are almost zero during this short time window." The resulting reaction releases gamma rays and light which are absorbed inside the reactor to produce heat. It is interesting to note that Defkalion no
longer uses any chemical catalyst to break H2 gas into H1 because their
"plasma ignition" method does it all. Unlike Andrea Rossi's
design, resistance heating elements are only required during the
initial start-up phase of the reaction.
NEWS! Read about Defkalion's plan to produce electricity for one cent per kilowatt hour in an interview with Alex Xanthoulis. They hope to have a finalized prototype ready for mass production sometime in 2014.
Cyclone Power Technologies
makes a highly efficient closed loop steam engine that would make a
good match for Defkalion's LENR reactor for automobile, truck, and
Other LENR pioneers
Brillouin Energy Corporation
has functioning LENR technology similar to Rossi and Defkalion.
One device they have in development is a simple hot
water heater that uses ordinary water (which releases hydrogen) and
nickel as fuel. This device has a low COP but is inexpensive to build and could safely be
used in homes to replace standard home water heaters. Brillouin
has a second device in development which is a more complex nickel
hydrogen gas device. Brillouin is rumored to have signed a production contract with a South
Korean company hoping to retrofit old coal power plants with their
carbon-free energy technology. One or more of Brillouin's reactor
designs are being tested at Stanford Research Institute (SRI), which is headquartered in Menlo Park, California.
Global Energy Corporation (GEC) has plans for a hybrid cold fusion-fission reactor, the GeNiE Hybrid (cold) Fusion Reactor.
"The GeNiE Reactor takes advantage of the efficiently produced
high-energy neutrons in a proprietary hybrid fusion, fast-fission
reactor design to produce power from un-enriched uranium. The GeNiE
Reactor is not prone to melt down since it doesn't rely on a
chain-reaction to produce high-energy neutrons. The GeNiE Reactor will
extract more energy from the fuel than conventional nuclear reactors.
The GeNiE Reactor is lower cost since it doesn't required enriched
uranium and it doesn't produce hazardous nuclear waste that is costly
to handle. By fissioning existing hazardous waste, the GeNiE Reactor
can generate power and mitigate existing hazardous waste at the same
time." This new reactor design was partially based on breakthrough
research conducted by the United States Navy research center, SPAWAR. More details here.
STMicroelectronics S.R.L. of Switzerland, one of the world’s largest semiconductor companies, has filed a LENR patent application.
Toyota scientists have replicated Mitsubishi's cold fusion and element transmutation experiments.
Solar Hydrogen Trends claims
to have invented a highly compact LENR based transmutation reactor
that can be used to transmute water, including the oxygen content of
water, into 97.5% pure hydrogen gas. They claim that the energy
equivalent of a barrel of oil (oil trading at $100 to $110 a
barrel) would cost only $5.07 using their technology.
Solar Hydrogen Trends first used AirKinetics, Inc. for testing, and they posted a signed test data page on their website. NEWS! On July 22, 2014, Solar Hydrogen Trends revealed even more positive test results, the latest conducted by TRC Solutions. See the TRC test report pdf.
Solar Hydrogen Trends
states that their discovery was purely accidental, and a
result of experiments in how to extract precious metals from
nature at higher rates of efficiency. SHT claims their technology can
up to replace the radioactive cores of fission nuclear power
claim it can also be adapted for use in all transportation, from
automobiles to ships to spacecraft.
NASA on LENR
cheap, abundant, clean, scalable, portable source of energy will impact
EVERYONE." - "Singular solution to peak oil, climate change, fresh
water, and associated geopolitical instabilities." - "Transmutation
products [of LENR are] most consistent with neutron absorption process." - Dr. Joseph M. Zawodny, NASA Langley Research Center
"The temperature you can get out of [LENR] is interesting.” - “We’ve had to be careful [in our
research in] terms of the energetics. I don’t think there is a
power [limitation] problem." - NASA scientist Dennis Bushnell
NASA concept for LENR space plane that flies from airport to orbit and back
using only one main rocket engine.
It starts with a dream! LENR Cars is
a very small Swiss startup company that hopes to change the world. How
long will it take to create the first affordable LENR powered
Here is a partial list of companies and organizations that have reported positive LENR test
results. There are many other organizations,
companies, scientific teams, and individual scientists who have
also reported positive test results. No doubt there is also much research that is going on in secret.
The major competition to LENR - Simplified hot fusion without expensive lasers
High beta fusion reactor - See the exciting Lockheed Martin Skunk Works video describing a radically new compact hot
fusion reactor design comparable in complexity and cost to a commercial
jet engine. Lockheed Martin claims to be able to produce a 100 megawatt prototype
by 2017. The plasma pressure/magnetic pressure reactor is about
2x2x4 meters in size. Lockheed Martin hopes to launch full scale
commercial production by 2022 and to be able to meet global baseload
electricity demand by the year 2050.
Boron-hydrogen fusion - Tri Alpha Energy
uses a simplified form of high temperature fusion that uses boron and hydrogen as fuel. The fusion products are broken up into three
helium-4 nuclei and three alpha particles, a process that produces
little or no radioactive waste. Tri Alpha's reactor can
create electricity directly with no turbine required, increasing
efficiency while reducing size and construction costs. Tri Alpha's
concept is so appealing that famed Microsoft co-founder, Paul Allen,
has invested millions of dollars into the highly secretive Rancho Santa
Margarita based company. Tri Alpha has received additional new funding from the government of Russian on top of private U.S. investors.
Natural gas makes a great bridge technology to help us get to carbon free nuclear energy
NEWS! Nirvana Energy Systems has developed the Nirvana Thermo Acoustic Power Stick™ (TAPS™). This "technology
enables unparalleled benefits to the consumer. The technology converts
gas into electricity at an efficiency greater than the average
efficiency of the US power grid. Simultaneously the excess heat is
used for providing domestic hot water and/or space heating. The
overall system efficiency is over 90%, meaning that only a very small
amount of heat escapes the home, making the TAPS™ very environmentally
friendly compared to current heating and electricity solutions."
Please support and promote The National Food Security Act, which is needed to protect the affordability and long term survivability of the human food supply.
Please see my main website with overview of all major energy sources, The Renewable Energy Disaster, and the dramatic 15 minute YouTube video, The Global Biofuel Disaster.
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