The Fusion Revolution
The Fusion Revolution
[a.k.a. The LENR Revolution - Low Energy Nuclear Reaction]
When the first human animal figured out how to
make fire at will, life on earth changed forever.
When LENR reactors hit the marketplace on a large scale, which should
happen sometime in the very near future, fossil fuels will gradually
obsolete, and human history will be dramatically altered. A total
switchover to Low Energy Nuclear Reaction will take decades, but basic economics tells
us that LENR reactors will win in the marketplace over their more
Italian engineer Andrea Rossi's Energy Catalyzer (E-Cat)
LENR reactor is fueled by
micrometer sized nickel dust and hydrogen gas. The nickel powder
is processed to
increase the number of
surface protrusions to provide greater area for heat
producing reactions with hydrogen gas under pressure. A chemical
catalyst is added to the nickel, possibly potassium carbonate, to
break the H2 gas into H1.
Some chemists suggest that iron dust combined with pure carbon powder
might work as catalysts as well, but nothing has been confirmed. Heat is applied to
the pressurized nickel-hydrogen mixture which initiates low energy nuclear reactions (LENR).
Rossi has promised to reveal his theory of how LENR works after he obtains patent protection, and now claims that it is not fusion.
Brillouin Energy Corporation calls LENR a “Controlled Electron Capture
Reaction” that forces electrons to combine with
the protons of hydrogen atoms to produce slow moving neutrons inside a metal
lattice. This reaction creates a variety of short lived
isotopes, helium, and heat. See Brillouin Energy Corporation's computer animation of how this process works. Defkalion
Green Technologies reports they are using
built test equipment to develop their own theory.
What they all agree upon is that LENR works, and is very different
from hot fusion reactions. No
matter which theory eventually becomes accepted as fact, LENR
represents an energy
source many times greater than the Earth's natural reservoir of
stored in fossil fuels. LENR may eventually replace
of oil, coal, and natural gas for heat. Andrea
Rossi states that converting just one gram of matter into energy,
nickel or any other element, produces 23,000 megawatt hours of heat
energy. Using nickel as nuclear fuel for all human
needs would only consume about 1% of the Earth's yearly nickel
production. The Earth will be consumed by the Sun before we run
out of nickel. [See nickel price charts]
Speculated diagram of the inside of Andrea Rossi's first E-Cat prototype
Rossi claims that LENR can
give the world electricity at a cost of just one cent per
kilowatt hour when produced by large scale LENR power plants. Even if we skeptically triple that cost
to 3 cents
per kilowatt hour, it is still an incredible bargain. We
currently pay at least 40 cents per kilowatt hour for
intermittent electricity produced by solar panels, 15 cents per
kilowatt hour for unpredictable wind power electricity, and 8 cents per
hour for electricity produced with natural gas. An extensive third party test report of Andrea Rossi's first generation "Hot Cat" reactor states that it works. See the pdf report. "Computed
volumetric and gravimetric energy densities were found to be far above
those of any known chemical source. Even by the most conservative
assumptions as to the errors in the measurements, the result is still
one order of magnitude greater than conventional energy sources."
As LENR is a relatively new and inherently
nontoxic technology, there are few major regulatory
barriers to slow its rapid technological advance. The growth of
LENR technology may thus be as exponential in progression as the use of
personal computers in the 1990s. No precious
metals are used in E-Cat or Defkalion reactors, and any company with the
required to build an air conditioner can produce them in large
numbers on assembly lines. That means even poor, relatively
undeveloped countries will be able to manufacture them. LENR devices will eventually
be used to power cars, trucks, trains, ships, aircraft, and spacecraft. Imagine a luxury sedan you could drive for many thousands of
miles without refueling, or a small aircraft you
could fly from New York to Beijing nonstop at low cost.
Above is a single Andrea Rossi Hot Cat LENR reactor cell claimed to
operate at 1,050 degrees Celsius.
Defkalion Green Technologies
Green Technologies states that their Hyperion LENR reactor cores contain ordinary H2 hydrogen gas, nickel
and proprietary materials and structures to aid in the reaction.
Simple resistance heating elements are turned on to excite the hydrogen
The naturally occurring H2 atoms are further excited by bursts of
electrical discharges via a spark plug-like device which breaks the H2
into H1 gas and transforms H1 atoms into Rydberg State Hydrogen
(RSH) atoms, which have very large, often elliptical electron (cloud)
orbits. The excited RSH hydrogen atoms are then squeezed into the
nickel atom latticework. "For a brief period of around 10 -13th second,
each RSH proton is very close to its electron. Then the RSH
nuclei is a masqueraded neutron. As a result, Coulomb forces
between such nuclei are almost zero during this short time window." The resulting reaction releases gamma rays and light which are absorbed inside the reactor to produce heat.
It is interesting to note that Defkalion no
longer uses any chemical catalyst to break H2 gas into H1 because their
"plasma ignition" method does it all. Unlike Andrea Rossi's
design, resistance heating elements are only required during the
initial start-up phase of the reaction. Defkalion uses timing of the
frequency of high voltage bursts to control reactor core temperature
within safe limits. Their system is highly energy efficient, allowing a COP of over 20,
meaning their reactors output over twenty times energy input. Andrea Rossi's latest Hot Cat high temperature reactor has a claimed COP of 11.7,
and he now claims energy input is provided by burning natural gas
instead of using electricity. A COP of over 10 using natural gas
as energy input makes Rossi's invention cost competitive with
Defkalion's device, which uses more expensive electrical input power.
See Defkalion Green Technologies PDF file
on how they suspect their LENR reactor works, and their discovery of strange magnetic fields produced by LENR. Defkalion presented a successful public test of their older,
Generation 5 LENR reactor on July 23rd, 2013, which was broadcast live
around the world. Defkalion's high power Generation 6 LENR reactor, which is meant for
actual industrial production, is currently undergoing advanced laboratory
Other LENR pioneers
Brillouin Energy Corporation
has functioning LENR technology similar to Rossi and Defkalion.
One device they have in development is a simple and inexpensive hot
water heater that uses ordinary water (which releases hydrogen) and
nickel as fuel. This device has a low COP, but could safely be
used in homes to replace standard home water heaters. Brillouin
has a second device in development which is a more complex nickel
hydrogen gas device that they claim has a COP of about 100:1 and
operates at 600 degrees Celsius, which is an ideal temperature for
producing electricity. Brillouin claims that their devices, as
well as Rossi's and Defkalion's devices, all work by capturing
electrons, thus turning the protons in hydrogen atoms into slow moving neutrons.
uses hydrogen derived from ordinary water vapor interacting with nickel
powder to produce electricity. Their basic technology has been
verified repeatedly through third party testing, but the company has so
far been unable to produce a commercially viable product.
Blacklight Power, Brillouin, Rossi, Defkalion, and others all use some
form of hydrogen interacting within a nickel lattice to produce power.
NEWS! A hybrid cold fusion-fission reactor is now in development, the GeNiE Hybrid (cold) Fusion Reactor.
"The GeNiE Reactor takes advantage of the efficiently produced
high-energy neutrons in a proprietary hybrid fusion, fast-fission
reactor design to produce power from un-enriched uranium. The GeNiE
Reactor is not prone to melt down since it doesn't rely on a
chain-reaction to produce high-energy neutrons. The GeNiE Reactor will
extract more energy from the fuel than conventional nuclear reactors.
The GeNiE Reactor is lower cost since it doesn't required enriched
uranium and it doesn't produce hazardous nuclear waste that is costly
to handle. By fissioning existing hazardous waste, the GeNiE Reactor
can generate power and mitigate existing hazardous waste at the same
time." This new reactor design was partially based on breakthrough
research conducted by the United States Navy research center, SPAWAR. More details here.
NEWS! STMicroelectronics S.R.L. of Switzerland, one of the world’s largest semiconductor companies, has filed a LENR patent application.
NEWS! Toyota scientists replicate Mitsubishi's cold fusion and element transmutation experiments.
cheap, abundant, clean, scalable, portable source of energy will impact
EVERYONE." - "Singular solution to peak oil, climate change, fresh
water, and associated geopolitical instabilities." - "Transmutation
products [of LENR are] most consistent with neutron absorption process." - Dr. Joseph M. Zawodny, NASA Langley Research Center
"The temperature you can get out of [LENR] is interesting.” - “We’ve had to be careful [in our
research in] terms of the energetics. I don’t think there is a
power [limitation] problem." - NASA scientist Dennis Bushnell
NASA concept for LENR space plane that flies from airport to orbit and back
using only one main rocket engine.
It starts with a dream! LENR Cars is
a very small Swiss startup company that hopes to change the world. How
long will it take to create the first affordable LENR powered
The major competition to LENR - Simplified hot fusion without expensive lasers
High beta fusion reactor - See the exciting Lockheed Martin Skunk Works video describing a radically new compact hot
fusion reactor design comparable in complexity and cost to a commercial
jet engine. Lockheed Martin claims to be able to produce a 100 megawatt prototype
by 2017. The plasma pressure/magnetic pressure reactor is about
2x2x4 meters in size. Lockheed Martin hopes to launch full scale
commercial production by 2022 and to be able to meet global baseload
electricity demand by the year 2050.
Boron-hydrogen fusion - Tri Alpha Energy
uses a simplified form of high temperature fusion that uses boron and hydrogen as fuel. The fusion products are broken up into three
helium-4 nuclei and three alpha particles, a process that produces
little or no radioactive waste. Tri Alpha's reactor can
create electricity directly with no turbine required, increasing
efficiency while reducing size and construction costs. Tri Alpha's
concept is so appealing that famed Microsoft co-founder, Paul Allen,
has invested millions of dollars into the highly secretive Rancho Santa
Margarita based company. A smaller company called Lawrenceville Plasma Physics, Inc. claims to be working on similar boron fueled fusion technology that they hope can produce electricity for just .2 cent per kilowatt hour. See video.
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