The Fusion Revolution
The Fusion Revolution
Lockheed Martin's simplified hot fusion reactor
Lockheed Martin has a website and video describing their radically new compact high beta hot
fusion reactor. The reactor is only about
2x2x4 meters in size. Lockheed Martin hopes to meet global baseload
electricity demand by the year 2050.
Tri Alpha Energy
uses a simplified form of high temperature fusion that uses boron and hydrogen as fuel. The fusion products are broken up into three
helium-4 nuclei and three alpha particles, a process that produces
little or no radioactive waste. Tri Alpha's reactor can
create electricity directly with no turbine required, increasing
efficiency while reducing size and construction costs. Tri Alpha's
concept is so appealing that famed Microsoft co-founder, Paul Allen,
has invested millions of dollars in this Rancho Santa
Margarita based company.
Low Energy Nuclear Reaction (LENR)
Brillouin Energy Corporation
has multiple devices based on LENR technology under development. Brillouin's nickel
hydrogen gas based LENR reactor is claimed to be able to produce between 4 and 6 times the
energy put into the reactor. Brillouin has released an interesting new video explaining their technology. See their patent application, Control of Low Energy Nuclear Reaction in Hydrides, and Autonomously Controlled Heat Generation Module.
"Brillouin Energy’s technology is based on Low
Energy Nuclear Reactions (“LENR”), which it generates in its uniquely
designed reactor core unit that converts ordinary hydrogen into helium
through a sequence of continuous and controlled nuclear reactions. The
mass of helium is slightly less than the mass of the four hydrogen
nuclei that are consumed; that mass difference is converted into a
relatively large amount of thermal energy in accordance with Einstein’s
famous formula: E = mc2".
Unified Gravity Corporation claims to be working on a hydrogen-lithium fusion reactor (see patent application). They
state that "We began in 2001 with Hubert and Stephen Lipinski’s
theoretical research on kinetic energy storage and how this storage
effects gravity. Their paper Gravity Theory Based on Mass-Energy Equivalence was published in 2008." Unified
Gravity is currently developing various methods of transferring the
energy from alpha particles into direct electric currents. They
claim that they were "able to reproduce positive results in labs at the
University of Louisiana, Lafayette and the University of North Texas
with further experiments at our Morgan Hill laboratory."Unified Gravity's compact fusion reactor
NASA on LENR
cheap, abundant, clean, scalable, portable source of energy will impact
EVERYONE." - "Singular solution to peak oil, climate change, fresh
water, and associated geopolitical instabilities." - "Transmutation
products [of LENR are] most consistent with neutron absorption process."— Dr. Joseph M. Zawodny, NASA Langley Research Center
"The temperature you can get out of [LENR] is interesting.” - “We’ve had to be careful [in our
research in] terms of the energetics. I don’t think there is a
power [limitation] problem." — NASA scientist Dennis Bushnell
NASA concept for LENR space plane that flies from airport to orbit and back
using only one main rocket engine.
The hot as fire E-Cat controversy
style one megawatt E-Cat reactor
Andrea Rossi was granted a US patent for the E-Cat on August 25, 2015. On August 27th, 2015, Rossi filed an international patent application that reveals further details. The E-Cat fuel contains carbonyl nickel
powder, pure lithium powder, and lithium aluminum hydride (LiAlH4). Other speculated ingredients include iron or steel dust, carbon powder, tungsten, and now titanium. You can find fuel
preparation ideas for the original old style E-Cat here, here, and here. The LENR reaction
is claimed to start when the fuel mixture is heated inside the sealed reactor core
by a varying electromagnetic field, which is induced by modulating the
electric current being fed into the heating coils. No radioactive
used in the
reactor. Rossi claims that borderline
radiation between X-rays and gamma-rays around 50 keV is produced
inside the reactor. Andrea Rossi states that he is working on a new E-Cat QuarkX design, which operates with a
temperature of more than 1,500 degrees Celsius (2,732 degrees
Fahrenheit). The QuarkX is claimed to be
made up of tiny 20 watt
modules just 1 mm in diameter. Rossi
says they emit an intense blue light, heat, and electricity.
WAR OF WORDS - Is it all a scam? Industrial Heat, LLC and Leonardo Corporation
installed an old style one megawatt (heat) E-Cat reactor in Miami,
Florida, for a
350 day long operational test. The test ended on February 17th,
2016. A purportedly
independent third party scientist, Dr. Ing. Fabio Penon, was hired by
Industrial Heat and Andrea Rossi to oversee the test measurements and
write a report. Rossi has filed a lawsuit against Industrial
for patent violation and breach of contract for refusing to pay funds
after the test's completion. Industrial Heat has rejected
Rossi's claims and alleges fraud. See Industrial Heat's claims against Rossi. Who
do you believe? Is the E-Cat a hoax or a miracle of 21st
century science? Does Andrea Rossi deserve to go to jail, or does
he deserve a Nobel Prize? This author is agnostic until more
is made public.
Toyota replicates Mitsubishi's cold fusion and element transmutation experiments.
Latest 2016 Mitsubishi LENR patent.
Here is a partial list of companies and organizations that have reported positive LENR test
results. There are many other organizations,
companies, scientific teams, and individual scientists who have
also reported positive test results. No doubt there is also much research that is going on in secret.
Molten salt fission nuclear reactors - the backup plan
simplified hot fusion technology and Low Energy Nuclear Reaction does not
work as hoped, the world has alternative number three in the form of
molten salt fission nuclear reactors. While less desirable
than LENR and simplified hot fusion technology, we know that
molten salt reactors work because they have already been built and
tested during the 1950s through 1970s. Molten salt reactors are inherently safer and
simpler than light water nuclear reactors, and they are
cheaper to build and maintain. Molten salt reactors can run on
uranium or on plutonium fuel salvaged from old nuclear warheads.
They can also be used to breed new uranium-233 fuel from the
Earth's inexhaustible supply of low cost thorium. A
Canadian company called Terrestrial Energy
has a plan to start producing simple molten salt
uranium based reactors and gradually transition over time to more
advanced thorium molten salt reactors.
Molten salt thorium reactors produce very little long term
nuclear waste and are meltdown proof because the fuel is designed to
be melted down right from the very beginning. A new British company, Moltex, has similar plans. News! See thorium reactor YouTube movie.
the nuclear technologies described on this website have the potential
to produce low cost reliable energy twenty-four hours a day, three
hundred and sixty-five days a year. Reliability, high energy
density, and low cost are essential qualities for any authentic
replacement for fossil fuels, and they are qualities that biofuels,
windmills, and solar schemes can never give us. Please see my main website with overview of all major energy sources, The Renewable Energy Disaster, and watch the YouTube videos, The Global Biofuel Disaster and Windmills Kill Birds.
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Christopher Calder is a nonprofit, nonpartisan advocate for world
security with no financial interest in any energy related business.