The Fusion Revolution

Lockheed Martin's simplified hot fusion reactor
Lockheed Martin fusion reator
     Lockheed Martin has a website and video describing their radically new compact high beta hot fusion reactor.  The reactor is only about 2x2x4 meters in size.  Lockheed Martin hopes to meet global baseload electricity demand by the year 2050. 

Boron-hydrogen fusion 

Tri Alpha

     Tri Alpha Energy uses a simplified form of high temperature fusion that uses boron and hydrogen as fuel.  The fusion products are broken up into three helium-4 nuclei and three alpha particles, a process that produces little or no radioactive waste.  Tri Alpha's reactor can theoretically create electricity directly with no turbine required, increasing efficiency while reducing size and construction costs.  Tri Alpha's concept is so appealing that famed Microsoft co-founder, Paul Allen, has invested millions of dollars in this Rancho Santa Margarita based company.

Tokamak Energy claims their compact ST40 hot fusion reactor could start powering the grid by the year 2030.

Tokamak ST40

Professor Leif Holmlid's laser experiment on ultra-dense deuterium
  laser experiment

Leif Holmlid and others at the University of Gothenburg, Sweden, are working on low cost fusion power of a new type that does not produce dangerous high speed neutrons.  "Fusion energy may soon be used in small-scale power stations.  This means producing environmentally friendly heating and electricity at a low cost from fuel found in water.  Both heating generators and generators for electricity could be developed within a few years, according to research that has primarily been conducted at the University of Gothenburg."  See "Mesons from Laser-Induced Processes in Ultra-Dense Hydrogen H(0)".

HB11 Energy  Headed by Professor Heinrich Hora, HB11 Energy promises low cost fusion power through new developments in laser boron fusion.  Heinrich  is a Professor Emeritus at University of New South Wales, Australia, and Vice-President of the Royal Society of New South Wales.  “We expect to be able to provide energy for about of the price of coal fired power, without any carbon emissions or radioactive by-products, which will be disruptive to the power industry.  With the small size and footprint of a HB11 power station, the addressable market is expected to reach further than the power grid to applications such as ships, submarines, large factories or to remote locations such as isolated towns and mine sites.”  "Unlike Deuterium Tritium fusion and fission techniques, the HB11 reaction is sufficiently clean with respect to production of any harmful by-products or radiation. It also has the potential to create electricity directly without the need for a heat exchanger and steam turbine to generate electricity as required for coal or fission nuclear power stations. This will allow power stations to be built with a relatively small capital investment and footprint based on presently achived extreme laser technology."  See "Breakthroughs Could Make Commercial Laser Nuclear Fusion Through Billion Times Improvements In Yield" and "Road map to clean energy using laser beam ignition of boron-hydrogen fusion".
Laser Boron Fusion

     "The very broad estimate is still 10 years: 2-3 to perform a laboratory proof-of-concept. This stage will give us a much more accurate indication of timeline as we gain a good understanding of the engineering challenges.  As several groups around the world have already observed this type of laser boron fusion we don't expect there to be anywhere near the challenges faced by D-T fusion efforts.  From this point a prototype would be a 5-10 year project."  — Dr. Warren McKenzie, Materials scientist, UNSW conjoint academic, business development manager of the Australian National Fabrication Facility, and Director of Indee Labs and Advanced Alloy Holdings.

Helion Energy,  First Light Fusion, and General Fusion are also working on lower cost hot fusion technology.

Low Energy Nuclear Reaction?  See this U.S. Naval Institute publication from September, 2018. - "This is Not 'Cold Fusion'."

Molten salt fission nuclear reactors - the backup plan 

     If simplified hot fusion technology does not work as hoped, the world has an alternative in the form of molten salt fission nuclear reactors.  Molten salt reactors are inherently safer than light water nuclear reactors and are cheaper to build and maintain.  Molten salt reactors can be run on uranium or plutonium fuel salvaged from old nuclear warheads, and they can also be used to breed uranium-233 fuel from the Earth's inexhaustible supply of thorium.  Molten salt thorium reactors produce very little long term nuclear waste and are meltdown proof because their fuel is designed to be melted down right from the beginning.  While less desirable than fusion technology, we know that molten salt reactors work because they were built and tested in the United States during the 1950s through 1970s.  Huntsville based Flibe Energy plans to produce liquid-fluoride thorium reactors (LFTRs) to breed thorium into fissionable uranium-233 fuel.  Canada's Terrestrial Energy plans to produce simpler molten salt uranium reactors at first and then gradually transition to the more advanced thorium molten salt reactor design over time.  Britain's Moltex has similar plans.  See the thorium reactor YouTube movie.

     All of the nuclear technologies described on this website have the potential to produce low cost reliable energy twenty-four hours a day, three hundred and sixty-five days a year.  Reliability, high energy density, and low cost are essential qualities for any authentic replacement for fossil fuels, and they are qualities that biofuels, windmills, and solar schemes can never give us.  

     Please see my main website with overview of all major energy sources, The Renewable Energy Disaster, and read Moderating Climate Change Hysteria for the real climate facts.  Please watch the free YouTube videos, The Global Biofuel Disaster,  Windmills Kill Birds, and Climate Hysteria.

Christopher Calder    email = calderconnection AT gmail DOT com    Personal home page  
Christopher Calder is a nonprofit, nonpartisan advocate for world food supply security with no financial interest in any energy related business.