The Fusion Revolution
[a.k.a. The LENR Revolution - Low Energy Nuclear Reaction]


     When the first human animal figured out how to make fire at will, life on earth changed forever.  When LENR reactors hit the marketplace on a large scale, which should happen sometime in the very near future, fossil fuels will gradually become obsolete, and human history will be dramatically altered.  A total switchover to Low Energy Nuclear Reaction will take decades, but basic economics tells us that LENR reactors will win in the marketplace over their more costly competitors.

The E-Cat and Hot-Cat

NEWS!  Press Release - Industrial Heat Has Acquired Andrea Rossi's E-Cat Technology  "Mr. Vaughn confirmed IH acquired the intellectual property and licensing rights to Rossi's LENR device after an independent committee of European scientists conducted two multi-day tests at Rossi's facilities in Italy."

     Italian engineer Andrea Rossi's Energy Catalyzer (E-Cat) LENR reactor is fueled by micrometer sized nickel dust and hydrogen gas.  The nickel powder is processed to increase the number of surface protrusions to provide greater area for heat producing reactions with hydrogen gas under pressure.  A chemical catalyst is added to the nickel to break the H2 gas into H1.  Speculations as to possible catalytic agents include iron dust combined with pure carbon powder, potassium carbonate, and lithium hydride.
  Heat is applied to the pressurized nickel-hydrogen mixture which initiates low energy nuclear reactions (LENR).

     Andrea Rossi has promised to reveal his theory of how LENR works after he obtains patent protection, and now claims that it is not fusion.  Brillouin Energy Corporation calls LENR a “Controlled Electron Capture Reaction” that forces electrons to combine with the protons of hydrogen atoms to produce slow moving neutrons inside a metal lattice.  This reaction creates a variety of short lived isotopes, helium, and heat.  See Brillouin Energy Corporation's computer animation of how this process works.  Defkalion Green Technologies reports they are using custom built test equipment to develop their own theory.  What they all agree upon is that LENR works, and is very different from hot fusion reactions.  No matter which theory eventually becomes accepted as fact, LENR represents an energy source many times greater than the Earth's natural reservoir of chemical energy stored in fossil fuels.  LENR may eventually replace the burning of oil, coal, and natural gas for heat.  Andrea Rossi states that converting just one gram of matter into energy, nickel or any other element, produces 23,000 megawatt hours of heat energy.  Using nickel as nuclear fuel for all human needs would only consume about 1% of the Earth's yearly nickel production.  The Earth will be consumed by the Sun before we run out of nickel.  [See nickel price charts]           


hot cat
Above is a single Andrea Rossi Hot-Cat LENR reactor cell claimed to operate at 1,050 degrees Celsius.
 
     Rossi claims that LENR can give the world electricity at a cost of just one cent per kilowatt hour when produced by large scale LENR power plants.  Even if we skeptically triple that cost to 3 cents per kilowatt hour, it is still an incredible bargain.  We currently pay at least 40 cents per kilowatt hour for intermittent electricity produced by solar panels, 15 cents per kilowatt hour for unpredictable wind power electricity, and 8 cents per kilowatt hour for electricity produced with natural gas.  An extensive third party test report of Andrea Rossi's first generation "Hot Cat" reactor states that it works.  See the pdf report.   "Computed volumetric and gravimetric energy densities were found to be far above those of any known chemical source.  Even by the most conservative assumptions as to the errors in the measurements, the result is still one order of magnitude greater than conventional energy sources." 

     As LENR is a relatively new and inherently nontoxic technology, there are few major regulatory barriers to slow its rapid technological advance.  The growth of LENR technology may thus be as exponential in progression as the use of personal computers in the 1990s.  No precious metals are used in E-Cat or Defkalion reactors, and any company with the technological skills required to build an air conditioner can produce them in large numbers on assembly lines.  That means even poor, relatively undeveloped countries will be able to manufacture them.  LENR devices will eventually be used to power cars, trucks, trains, ships, aircraft, and spacecraft.  Imagine a luxury sedan you could drive for many thousands of miles without refueling, or a small aircraft you could fly from New York to Beijing nonstop at low cost. 

You can keep up with fast moving E-Cat events through http://www.e-catworld.com/.  

Defkalion Green Technologies

     Defkalion Green Technologies states that their Hyperion LENR reactor cores contain ordinary H2 hydrogen gas, nickel powder, and proprietary materials and structures to aid in the reaction.  Simple resistance heating elements are turned on to excite the hydrogen gas.  The naturally occurring H2 atoms are further excited by bursts of electrical discharges via a spark plug-like device which breaks the H2 into H1 gas and transforms H1 atoms into Rydberg State Hydrogen (RSH) atoms, which have very large elliptical electron (cloud) orbits.  The excited RSH hydrogen atoms are then squeezed into the nickel atom latticework.  "For a brief period of around 10 -13th second, each RSH proton is very close to its electron.  Then the RSH nuclei is a masqueraded neutron.  As a result, Coulomb forces between such nuclei are almost zero during this short time window."  The resulting reaction releases gamma rays and light which are absorbed inside the reactor to produce heat.  It is interesting to note that Defkalion no longer uses any chemical catalyst to break H2 gas into H1 because their "plasma ignition" method does it all.  Unlike Andrea Rossi's design, resistance heating elements are only required during the initial start-up phase of the reaction.
H1 hydrogen atom - round orbit cloudelliptical orbit of electron cloud
   

Hyperion reactor prototype

NEWS!  Read about Defkalion's plan to produce electricity for one cent per kilowatt hour in an interview with Alex Xanthoulis.  They hope to have a finalized prototype ready for mass production sometime in 2014.

Cyclone Power Technologies makes a highly efficient closed loop steam engine that would make a good match for Defkalion's LENR reactor for automobile, truck, and train use.

Other LENR pioneers

Brillouin Energy Corporation has functioning LENR technology similar to Rossi and Defkalion.  One device they have in development is a simple hot water heater that uses ordinary water (which releases hydrogen) and nickel as fuel.  This device has a low COP but is inexpensive to build and could safely be used in homes to replace standard home water heaters.  Brillouin has a second device in development which is a more complex nickel powder and hydrogen gas device.  Brillouin is rumored to have signed a production contract with a South Korean company hoping to retrofit old coal power plants with their carbon-free energy technology.  One or more of Brillouin's reactor designs are being tested at Stanford Research Institute (SRI), which is headquartered in Menlo Park, California.

BlackLight Power - See Black Light's press release and January 28th, 2014, test and explanation YouTube video claiming the production of millions of watts of power in the form of plasma from a compact reactor. "BlackLight has developed a system engineering design of an electric generator that is less that a cubic foot in volume to generate ten million watts of electricity, enough to power ten thousand homes."
  BlackLight is claiming the potential to produce electricity for .1 cent per kilowatt hour.  See silent animated video of proposed 10 megawatt electricity generator and their business presentation pdf.  Are their claims real?  Is this LENR or something else?

Global Energy Corporation (GEC)
has plans for a hybrid cold fusion-fission reactor, the GeNiE Hybrid (cold) Fusion Reactor "The GeNiE Reactor takes advantage of the efficiently produced high-energy neutrons in a proprietary hybrid fusion, fast-fission reactor design to produce power from un-enriched uranium.  The GeNiE Reactor is not prone to melt down since it doesn't rely on a chain-reaction to produce high-energy neutrons. The GeNiE Reactor will extract more energy from the fuel than conventional nuclear reactors.  The GeNiE Reactor is lower cost since it doesn't required enriched uranium and it doesn't produce hazardous nuclear waste that is costly to handle. By fissioning existing hazardous waste, the GeNiE Reactor can generate power and mitigate existing hazardous waste at the same time."  This new reactor design was partially based on breakthrough research conducted by the United States Navy research center, SPAWAR.  More details here.

STMicroelectronics S.R.L. of Switzerland, one of the world’s largest semiconductor companies, has filed a LENR patent application. 

Toyota scientists have replicated Mitsubishi's cold fusion and element transmutation experiments.

     "A cheap, abundant, clean, scalable, portable source of energy will impact EVERYONE." - "Singular solution to peak oil, climate change, fresh water, and associated geopolitical instabilities." - "Transmutation products [of LENR are] most consistent with neutron absorption process." - Dr. Joseph M. Zawodny, NASA Langley Research Center

     "The temperature you can get out of [LENR] is interesting.” - “We’ve had to be careful [in our research in] terms of the energetics.  I don’t think there is a power [limitation] problem." - NASA scientist Dennis Bushnell

See three NASA pdf files on LENR - Zawodny  Bushnnell  Nelson and NASA-Zawodny LENR patent 

See NASA LENR video

NASA concept LENR space planeNASA LENR rocket conceptspace plane 2
NASA concept for LENR space plane that flies from airport to orbit and back using only one main rocket engine.

It starts with a dream!  LENR Cars is a very small Swiss startup company that hopes to change the world.  How long will it take to create the first affordable LENR powered automobile? 

Here is a partial list of companies and organizations that have reported positive LENR test results.  There are many other organizations, companies, scientific teams, and individual scientists who have also reported positive test results.  
No doubt there is also much research that is going on in secret.
 
The major competition to LENR - Simplified hot fusion without expensive lasers

High beta fusion reactor - See the exciting Lockheed Martin Skunk Works video describing a radically new compact hot fusion reactor design comparable in complexity and cost to a commercial jet engine.  Lockheed Martin claims to be able to produce a 100 megawatt prototype by 2017.  The plasma pressure/magnetic pressure reactor is about 2x2x4 meters in size.  Lockheed Martin hopes to launch full scale commercial production by 2022 and to be able to meet global baseload electricity demand by the year 2050. 

Boron-hydrogen fusion - Tri Alpha Energy uses a simplified form of high temperature fusion that uses boron and hydrogen as fuel.  The fusion products are broken up into three helium-4 nuclei and three alpha particles, a process that produces little or no radioactive waste.  Tri Alpha's reactor can theoretically create electricity directly with no turbine required, increasing efficiency while reducing size and construction costs.  Tri Alpha's concept is so appealing that famed Microsoft co-founder, Paul Allen, has invested millions of dollars into the highly secretive Rancho Santa Margarita based company.  Tri Alpha has received additional new funding from the government of Russian on top of private U.S. investors.

Natural gas makes a great bridge technology to help us get to carbon free nuclear energy

NEWS!  Nirvana Energy Systems has developed the Nirvana Thermo Acoustic Power Stick™ (TAPS™).  This "technology enables unparalleled benefits to the consumer.  The technology converts gas into electricity at an efficiency greater than the average efficiency of the US power grid.  Simultaneously the excess heat is used for providing domestic hot water and/or space heating.  The overall system efficiency is over 90%, meaning that only a very small amount of heat escapes the home, making the TAPS™ very environmentally friendly compared to current heating and electricity solutions."

Please support and promote The National Food Security Act, which is needed to protect the affordability and long term survivability of the human food supply.

Please see my main website with overview of all major energy sources, The Renewable Energy Disaster
, and the dramatic 15 minute YouTube video, The Global Biofuel Disaster.

Christopher Calder
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