The Fusion Revolution
The Fusion Revolution
Lockheed Martin's simplified hot fusion reactor
Lockheed Martin has a website and video describing their radically new compact high beta hot
fusion reactor. The reactor is only about
2x2x4 meters in size. Lockheed Martin hopes to meet global baseload
electricity demand by the year 2050.
Tri Alpha Energy
uses a simplified form of high temperature fusion that uses boron and hydrogen as fuel. The fusion products are broken up into three
helium-4 nuclei and three alpha particles, a process that produces
little or no radioactive waste. Tri Alpha's reactor can
create electricity directly with no turbine required, increasing
efficiency while reducing size and construction costs. Tri Alpha's
concept is so appealing that famed Microsoft co-founder, Paul Allen,
has invested millions of dollars in this Rancho Santa
Margarita based company.
Low Energy Nuclear Reaction (LENR)
Brillouin Energy Corporation
has multiple devices based on LENR technology under development. Brillouin's nickel
hydrogen gas based LENR reactor is claimed to be able to produce between 4 and 6 times the
energy put into the reactor. Brillouin has an interesting YouTube animation video
showing what they believe is the underlying mechanism of their LENR
device, which they call a "Control Electron Capture Reaction." See their patent application, Control of Low Energy Nuclear Reaction in Hydrides, and Autonomously Controlled Heat Generation Module.
"Brillouin Energy’s technology is based on Low
Energy Nuclear Reactions (“LENR”), which it generates in its uniquely
designed reactor core unit that converts ordinary hydrogen into helium
through a sequence of continuous and controlled nuclear reactions. The
mass of helium is slightly less than the mass of the four hydrogen
nuclei that are consumed; that mass difference is converted into a
relatively large amount of thermal energy in accordance with Einstein’s
famous formula: E = mc2".
STMicroelectronics S.R.L. of Switzerland, one of the world’s largest semiconductor companies, has filed a LENR patent application.
Toyota scientists have replicated Mitsubishi's cold fusion and element transmutation experiments.
Unified Gravity Corporation claims to be working on a Hydrogen Lithium Fusion Device. They state that "the
largest high-energy particle peak count rates achieved with the alpha
particle detection system have exceeded 500,000 CPS with energies
around 5 MeV after penetrating a 25 micron thick grounded aluminized
mylar shield directly in front of a stainless steel disk with a 1
micron diameter aperture positioned at a distance of 4 cm from the
NASA on LENR
cheap, abundant, clean, scalable, portable source of energy will impact
EVERYONE." - "Singular solution to peak oil, climate change, fresh
water, and associated geopolitical instabilities." - "Transmutation
products [of LENR are] most consistent with neutron absorption process."— Dr. Joseph M. Zawodny, NASA Langley Research Center
"The temperature you can get out of [LENR] is interesting.” - “We’ve had to be careful [in our
research in] terms of the energetics. I don’t think there is a
power [limitation] problem." — NASA scientist Dennis Bushnell
NASA concept for LENR space plane that flies from airport to orbit and back
using only one main rocket engine.
The hot as fire E-Cat controversy
style one megawatt E-Cat reactor
On October 8th, 2014, an independent test report
of Andrea Rossi’s E-Cat reactor was released by respected scientists
from three different universities. The tests were conducted in
Lugano, Switzerland, at a independent laboratory to avoid any question
of fraud. The tests claimed to show that the E-Cat reactor
produces excess heat that cannot be explained by any
known chemical process. Were the tests done properly and are the
results valid? Analysis of the fuel before and after the
test showed isotopic changes
that can only be explained by some form of nuclear reaction. See "Observation of abundant heat production from a reactor device and of isotopic changes in the fuel". Andrea Rossi was granted a US patent for the E-Cat on August 25, 2015. On August 27th, 2015, Rossi filed an international patent application that reveals further details.
The fuel mixture -
The E-Cat fuel contains carbonyl nickel
powder, pure lithium powder, and lithium aluminum hydride (LiAlH4). Other
possible ingredients include iron or steel dust, carbon powder, and tungsten. You can find fuel
preparation ideas for the original old style E-Cat here, here, and here. The LENR reaction
starts when the fuel mixture is heated inside the sealed reactor core
by a varying electromagnetic field, which is induced by modulating the
electric current being fed into the heating coils. No radioactive
used in the
reactor and no radiation was detected emitting from the reactor during
testing. Almost everything in the reactor and fuel is
recyclable. Rossi claims that LENR can
give the world electricity at a cost of just one cent per
kilowatt hour when produced by large scale LENR power plants. Even if we skeptically triple that cost
to 3 cents
per kilowatt hour, it is still an incredible bargain. Will the E-Cat work as promised?
NEWS! Andrea Rossi claims his new E-Cat QuarkX design
uses titanium (In the fuel mixture or casing?) and operates with a
temperature of more than 1,500 degrees Celsius (2,732 degrees
Fahrenheit), which is jet engine hot. The QuarkX is claimed to be
made up of tiny 100 watt
modules just 1 mm in diameter and 30 mm long (0.039 inches by 1.18
findings show they output approximately 200 times energy input and they emit an intense blue light
(speculation = possibly soft X-rays as well), heat, and electricity.
Rossi states the QuarkX
currently can produce up to 10% of the total energy output in the
electricity, and he hopes to increase that percentage over
time. See preliminary report.
Industrial Heat, LLC and Leonardo Corporation
installed an old style one megawatt (heat) E-Cat reactor in Miami, Florida, for a
350 day long operational test. The test ended on February 17th, 2016. An
independent third party scientist, Dr. Ing. Fabio Penon, was hired by
Industrial Heat and Andrea Rossi to oversee the test measurements and
write a report. The reactor was never refueled during the test. Rossi has filed a lawsuit against Industrial Heat
for patent violation and breach of contract for refusing to pay funds
on test completion. Industrial Heat has acquired other LENR
companies and hired other LENR scientists. Rossi appears to feel
that Industrial Heat has illegally transfered parts of his E-Cat
technology to those other companies and scientists. Quoted from
the lawsuit: "73. More specifically, the ERV found that over the
Guaranteed Performance period, the amount of energy produced by the
E-Cat Unit was consistently substantially greater than six (6) times
the amount of energy consumed by the unit. In fact, the ERV found
that during the testing period, the average energy multiplier (Energy
Produced + Energy Consumed) was often greater than sixty (60)".
Rossi states that the full report will be released soon when he gets
permission from his lawyers. Industrial Heat has vigorously rejected Rossi claims and promises to prove the suit is without merit. See updated story. Who do you believe? Is the E-Cat a hoax or a miracle of 21st
century science? This author is agnostic until more information
is made public.
Here is a partial list of companies and organizations that have reported positive LENR test
results. There are many other organizations,
companies, scientific teams, and individual scientists who have
also reported positive test results. No doubt there is also much research that is going on in secret.
Molten salt fission nuclear reactors - the backup plan
simplified hot fusion technology and Low Energy Nuclear Reaction does not
work as hoped, the world has alternative number three in the form of
molten salt fission nuclear reactors. While less desirable
than LENR and simplified hot fusion technology, we know that
molten salt reactors work because they have already been built and
tested during the 1950s through 1970s. Molten salt reactors are inherently safer and
simpler than light water nuclear reactors, and they are
cheaper to build and maintain. Molten salt reactors can run on
uranium or on plutonium fuel salvaged from old nuclear warheads.
They can also be used to breed new uranium-233 fuel from the
Earth's inexhaustible supply of low cost thorium. A
Canadian company called Terrestrial Energy
has a plan to start producing simple molten salt
uranium based reactors and gradually transition over time to more
advanced thorium molten salt reactors.
Molten salt thorium reactors produce very little long term
nuclear waste and are meltdown proof because the fuel is designed to
be melted down right from the very beginning. A new British company, Moltex, has similar plans. News! See thorium reactor YouTube movie.
the nuclear technologies described on this website have the potential
to produce low cost reliable energy twenty-four hours a day, three
hundred and sixty-five days a year. Reliability, high energy
density, and low cost are essential qualities for any authentic
replacement for fossil fuels, and they are qualities that biofuels,
windmills, and solar schemes can never give us. Please see my main website with overview of all major energy sources, The Renewable Energy Disaster, and watch the YouTube videos, The Global Biofuel Disaster and Windmills Kill Birds.
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Christopher Calder is a nonprofit, nonpartisan advocate for world
security with no financial interest in any energy related business.