The Fusion Revolution
The Fusion Revolution
Low Energy Nuclear Reaction
is not the slightest indication that nuclear energy will ever be
obtainable. It would mean that the atom would have to be
shattered at will." — Albert Einstein, 1932
When the first human beings figured out how to
make fire at will, life on Earth changed forever.
When LENR reactors hit the marketplace on a large scale, fossil fuels will gradually
obsolete, and human history will be dramatically altered. A total
switchover to Low Energy Nuclear Reaction will take decades, but basic economics tells
us that LENR reactors will win in the marketplace over their more
Old style one megawatt E-Cat reactor - The latest version uses only four 250 kilowatt E-Cat reactor cells.
NEWS! Andrea Rossi was granted a US patent for the E-Cat on August 25, 2015. On August 27th, 2015, Rossi filed an international patent application that reveals further details.
On October 8th, 2014, an independent test report
of Andrea Rossi’s E-Cat reactor was released by respected scientists
from three different universities. The tests were conducted in
Lugano, Switzerland, at a independent laboratory to avoid any question
of fraud. The tests show conclusively that the E-Cat reactor
produces large amounts of excess heat that cannot be explained by any
known chemical process. Analysis of the fuel before and after the
test showed isotopic changes
that can only be explained by some form of nuclear reaction. See "Observation of abundant heat production from a reactor device and of isotopic changes in the fuel".
Rossi stated in an interview that “My
theory is that a proton from a hydrogen atom enters, by the quantum
tunneling effect, into a nucleus of Li-7 (i.e., a lithium nucleus of
atomic weight 7), forming a nucleus of Be-8 (i.e., a beryllium nucleus
of atomic weight 8), which then decays in a few seconds into two alpha
particles (helium nuclei), accompanied with the release of significant
nuclear energy. ” See "On the Nuclear Mechanisms Underlying the Heat Production by the “E-Cat”.
NEWS - Yet another theory of how LENR works has been presented by two top Swedish scientists. "Nuclear Spallation and Neutron Capture Induced by Ponderomotive Wave Forcing", by Rickard Lundin and Hans Lidgren, can be downloaded here (PDF). The two scientists claim that LENR can be explained within the standard model of physics.
----------Quoted from the report----------
reactor operating point was set to about 1260 ºC in the first half of
the run, and at about 1400 °C in the second half. The measured energy
balance between input and output heat yielded a COP factor of about 3.2
and 3.6 for the 1260 ºC and 1400 ºC runs, respectively. The total net
energy obtained during the 32 days run was about 1.5 Mwh.”
sample of the fuel was carefully examined with respect to its isotopic
composition before the run and after the run, using several standard
methods: XPS, EDS, SIMS, ICP-MS and ICP-AES. The isotope composition in
Lithium and Nickel was found to agree with the natural composition
before the run, while after the run it was found to have changed
substantially. Nuclear reactions are therefore indicated to be present
in the run process, which however is hard to reconcile with the fact
that no radioactivity was detected outside the reactor during the run."
The E-Cat fuel contains carbonyl nickel
which Andrea Rossi once stated
was 99.999% pure. The micron sized nickel grains must be
prepared in advance by preheating them to a minimum temperature
of 200 degrees Celsius, which converts trapped water into
supercritical steam. The exploding steam increases the porosity
of the nickel. Also in the fuel mixture are pure lithium powder and lithium aluminum hydride (LiAlH4). Other
possible ingredients, such as small amounts of carbon and steel
dust, are suspected, but not proven. The LENR reaction
starts when the fuel mixture is heated inside the sealed reactor core
by a varying electromagnetic field, which is induced by modulating the
electric current being fed into the heating coils. No radioactive
used in the
reactor and no radiation was detected emitting from the reactor during
testing. Almost everything in the reactor and fuel is
The fuel mixture - “Variations
in the ratio of reactants and catalyst tend to govern reaction rate,
and are not critical. However, it has been found that a suitable
mixture would include a starting mixture of 50% nickel, 20% lithium,
and 30% LAH [lithium aluminum hydride]. Within this mixture,
nickel acts as a catalyst for the reaction, and is not itself a
reagent. While nickel is particularly useful because of its
relative abundance, its function can also be carried out by other
elements in column 10 of the periodic table, such as platinum or
palladium.” — Rossi Patent
Industrial Heat, LLC has installed a one megawatt E-Cat reactor at a customer’s
factory for a 400 day long operational test producing heat for an industrial
process. After analyzing the results of the Lugano test, Rossi changed the fuel composition and control systems. This has allowed
the one megawatt reactor to run for longer periods of time with no
energy input, resulting in a higher COP. Mats Lewan, a usually reliable Swedish reporter, stated that "Since
a COP ranging
from 20 to 80 has been reported, I can confirm that I have got the same
Rossi claims that LENR can
give the world electricity at a cost of just one cent per
kilowatt hour when produced by large scale LENR power plants. Even if we skeptically triple that cost
to 3 cents
per kilowatt hour, it is still an incredible bargain. As LENR is a relatively new and inherently
nontoxic technology, there are few major regulatory
barriers to slow its rapid technological advance. The growth of
LENR technology may thus be as exponential in progression as the use of
personal computers in the 1990s. No precious
metals are used in the E-Cat, and any company with the
required to build an air conditioner can produce them in large
numbers on assembly lines. That means even poor, relatively
undeveloped countries will be able to manufacture them. LENR
devices will eventually
be used to power cars, trucks, trains, ships, aircraft, and
spacecraft. Imagine a luxury sedan you could drive for many
miles without refueling, or a small aircraft you
could fly from New York to Beijing nonstop at low cost.
Yet another group of Russian researchers claim to have duplicated
Rossi's E-Cat technology. They say the secret is to preload the
nickel powder with hydrogen. See story with technical details. See article about earlier Russian replication claim. See Chinese replication claim here.
Brillouin Energy Corporation
has functioning LENR technology similar to Rossi and Defkalion.
One device they have in development is a simple hot
water heater that uses ordinary water (which releases hydrogen) and
nickel as fuel. This device has a low COP but is inexpensive to build and could safely be
used in homes to replace standard home water heaters. Brillouin also has a more complex nickel
hydrogen gas device in development with a potentially higher COP. Brillouin has signed a licensing contract with a South
Korean company that wishes to use their clean energy technology. Brillouin has an interesting YouTube animation video
showing what they believe is the underlying mechanism of their LENR
device, which they call a "Control Electron Capture Reaction." See their patent application, Control of Low Energy Nuclear Reaction in Hydrides, and Autonomously Controlled Heat Generation Module.
NEWS! Brillouin hosts information session on Capitol Hill - Members of Congress show interest in LENR
Global Energy Corporation (GEC) has plans for a hybrid cold fusion-fission reactor, the GeNiE Hybrid Fusion Reactor. "The GeNiE Reactor takes advantage of the efficiently produced
high-energy neutrons in a proprietary hybrid fusion, fast-fission
reactor design to produce power from un-enriched uranium. The GeNiE
Reactor is not prone to melt down since it doesn't rely on a
chain-reaction to produce high-energy neutrons. The GeNiE Reactor will
extract more energy from the fuel than conventional nuclear reactors.
The GeNiE Reactor is lower cost since it doesn't required enriched
uranium and it doesn't produce hazardous nuclear waste that is costly
to handle. By fissioning existing hazardous waste, the GeNiE Reactor
can generate power and mitigate existing hazardous waste at the same
time." This reactor design was partially based on breakthrough
research conducted by the United States Navy research center, SPAWAR. More details here. You can see an intriguing short YouTube video on the history of the U.S. Navy's SPAWAR's LENR research here.
STMicroelectronics S.R.L. of Switzerland, one of the world’s largest semiconductor companies, has filed a LENR patent application.
Toyota scientists have replicated Mitsubishi's cold fusion and element transmutation experiments.
Unified Gravity Corporation claims to be working on a Hydrogen Lithium Fusion Device. They state that "the
largest high-energy particle peak count rates achieved with the alpha
particle detection system have exceeded 500,000 CPS with energies
around 5 MeV after penetrating a 25 micron thick grounded aluminized
mylar shield directly in front of a stainless steel disk with a 1
micron diameter aperture positioned at a distance of 4 cm from the
Here is a partial list of companies and organizations that have reported positive LENR test
results. There are many other organizations,
companies, scientific teams, and individual scientists who have
also reported positive test results. No doubt there is also much research that is going on in secret.
NASA on LENR
cheap, abundant, clean, scalable, portable source of energy will impact
EVERYONE." - "Singular solution to peak oil, climate change, fresh
water, and associated geopolitical instabilities." - "Transmutation
products [of LENR are] most consistent with neutron absorption process."— Dr. Joseph M. Zawodny, NASA Langley Research Center
"The temperature you can get out of [LENR] is interesting.” - “We’ve had to be careful [in our
research in] terms of the energetics. I don’t think there is a
power [limitation] problem." — NASA scientist Dennis Bushnell
NASA concept for LENR space plane that flies from airport to orbit and back
using only one main rocket engine.
Simplified hot fusion without expensive lasers
High beta fusion reactor - See the news story and exciting Lockheed Martin video describing a radically new compact hot
fusion reactor design comparable in size to a commercial
jet engine. The plasma pressure/magnetic pressure reactor is about
2x2x4 meters in size. Lockheed Martin hopes to meet global baseload
electricity demand by the year 2050.
Boron-hydrogen fusion - Tri Alpha Energy
uses a simplified form of high temperature fusion that uses boron and hydrogen as fuel. The fusion products are broken up into three
helium-4 nuclei and three alpha particles, a process that produces
little or no radioactive waste. Tri Alpha's reactor can
create electricity directly with no turbine required, increasing
efficiency while reducing size and construction costs. Tri Alpha's
concept is so appealing that famed Microsoft co-founder, Paul Allen,
has invested millions of dollars into the highly secretive Rancho Santa
Margarita based company. NEWS! Tri Alpha has reported new progress in simplified hot fusion.
Please see my main website with overview of all major energy sources, The Renewable Energy Disaster, and watch the dramatic 15 minute YouTube video, The Global Biofuel Disaster.
= archive100 AT inbox DOT com