The Fusion Revolution

Lockheed Martin's simplified hot fusion reactor
Lockheed Martin fusion reator
     Lockheed Martin has a website and video describing their radically new compact high beta hot fusion reactor.  The reactor is only about 2x2x4 meters in size.  Lockheed Martin hopes to meet global baseload electricity demand by the year 2050. 

Boron-hydrogen fusion 

Tri Alpha

     Tri Alpha Energy uses a simplified form of high temperature fusion that uses boron and hydrogen as fuel.  The fusion products are broken up into three helium-4 nuclei and three alpha particles, a process that produces little or no radioactive waste.  Tri Alpha's reactor can theoretically create electricity directly with no turbine required, increasing efficiency while reducing size and construction costs.  Tri Alpha's concept is so appealing that famed Microsoft co-founder, Paul Allen, has invested millions of dollars in this Rancho Santa Margarita based company.

Tokamak Energy claims their compact ST40 hot fusion reactor could start powering the grid by the year 2030.

\Tokamack
Tokamak ST40

Helion Energy,  First Light Fusion, and General Fusion are also working on lower cost hot fusion technology.


Low Energy Nuclear Reaction (LENR)

Unified Gravity's compact fusion reactor
  Unified Gravity fusion reactor
     Unified Gravity Corporation claims to be working on a hydrogen-lithium fusion reactor (see patent application).  They state that "We began in 2001 with Hubert and Stephen Lipinski’s theoretical research on kinetic energy storage and how this storage effects gravity.  Their paper Gravity Theory Based on Mass-Energy Equivalence was published in 2008."  Unified Gravity is currently developing various methods of transferring the energy from alpha particles into direct electric currents.  They claim that they were "able to reproduce positive results in labs at the University of Louisiana, Lafayette and the University of North Texas with further experiments at our Morgan Hill laboratory."

Professor Leif Holmlid's laser experiment on ultra-dense deuterium
  laser experiment

     Professor
Leif Holmlid and others at the University of Gothenburg, Sweden, are working on low cost fusion power of a new type that does not produce dangerous high speed neutrons.  "Fusion energy may soon be used in small-scale power stations.  This means producing environmentally friendly heating and electricity at a low cost from fuel found in water.  Both heating generators and generators for electricity could be developed within a few years, according to research that has primarily been conducted at the University of Gothenburg."  See "Mesons from Laser-Induced Processes in Ultra-Dense Hydrogen H(0)".

Big name corporations researching LENR
- Toyota replicates Mitsubishi's cold fusion and element transmutation experiments.  See
2016 Mitsubishi LENR patent.  Airbus DS GmbH patent applications, "Material arrangement for fusion reactor and method for producing the same" and "Method and apparatus for generating and for fusing ultra-dense hydrogen"

Molten salt fission nuclear reactors - the backup plan 
MSR    

     If simplified hot fusion technology and Low Energy Nuclear Reaction do not work as hoped, the world has alternative number three in the form of molten salt fission nuclear reactors.  While less desirable than LENR and simplified hot fusion technology, we know that molten salt reactors work because they have already been built and tested during the 1950s through 1970s.  Molten salt reactors are inherently safer and simpler than light water nuclear reactors, and they are cheaper to build and maintain.  Molten salt reactors can run on uranium or on plutonium fuel salvaged from old nuclear warheads.  They can also be used to breed new uranium-233 fuel from the Earth's inexhaustible supply of low cost thorium.  A Canadian company called Terrestrial Energy has a plan to start producing simple molten salt uranium based reactors and gradually transition over time to more advanced thorium molten salt reactors.  Molten salt thorium reactors produce very little long term nuclear waste and are meltdown proof because the fuel is designed to be melted down right from the very beginning.  A new British company, Moltex, has similar plans.  See the thorium reactor YouTube movie.

     All of the nuclear technologies described on this website have the potential to produce low cost reliable energy twenty-four hours a day, three hundred and sixty-five days a year.  Reliability, high energy density, and low cost are essential qualities for any authentic replacement for fossil fuels, and they are qualities that biofuels, windmills, and solar schemes can never give us.  

     Please see my main website with overview of all major energy sources, The Renewable Energy Disaster, and read Moderating Climate Change Hysteria for the real climate facts.  Please watch the free YouTube videos, The Global Biofuel Disaster,  Windmills Kill Birds, and Climate Hysteria.

Christopher Calder      email = archive.sonoma AT gmail DOT com

Christopher Calder is a nonprofit, nonpartisan advocate for world food supply security with no financial interest in any energy related business.